Eve Adams Chronology


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References to Eve Adams' life in bold type.
This Word version includes major references to Eve in yellow. But the yellow does not show up on OutHistory.

1868-00-00  LAW; OBSCENITY.  Because New York still had no statute forbidding the distribution of obscenity, the YMCA board drew up proposed legislation to address the issue. In 1868, after an aggressive lobbying campaign, the YMCA got its bill through the New York legislature. The new law made it a crime for any person to sell or give away any “obscene and indecent” book, pamphlet, drawing, painting, or photograph.” Having secured the enactment of this legislation, though, the YMCA board feared that law enforcement officials, who had more pressing priorities, would not devote sufficient resources to suppress the burgeoning market for indecent materials. The board therefore decided that extralegal methods were necessary to achieve the organization’s goals. The board thus established its own private task force to ensure the vigorous implementation of its hard-won statute.15 The YMCA’s chief inspector in this campaign, Anthony Comstock, would dominate the national debate over obscenity for the next four decades. Based on an unwavering conviction that the devil’s temptations were omnipresent, Comstock believed to his very core that abstinence from all impure thoughts and behaviors was the only faithful path to righteousness. The leaders of the YMCA were so impressed with Comstock’s energy, enthusiasm, effectiveness, and religious zeal that they offered him a full-time job. He stepped easily into his new role. After organizing his squad, which he named the “Committee for the Suppression of Vice,” Comstock led several successful raids on local publishers, but soon realized that to make a truly major impact he needed national legislation. With the backing of the YMCA, Comstock journeyed to Washington to lobby for a federal law. Comstock warned Congress that obscenity was a “hydra-headed monster” that required a potent legislative weapon.16   Material was deemed obscene if it had even the potential to corrupt an impressionable adolescent. This standard effectively limited adults to only those materials that were deemed appropriate for children. For all practical purposes, any reference to sex in this era was unlawful.20

1873-03-04  LAW; OBSCENITY. The Comstock laws are a set of federal acts passed by the United States Congress under the Grant administration, along with related state laws.[1] The "parent" act (Sect. 211) was passed on March 3, 1873, as the "Act for the Suppression of Trade in, and Circulation of, Obscene Literature and Articles of Immoral Use." This Act criminalized any use of the U.S. Postal Service to send any of the following items[2]: obscenity, contraceptives,   abortifacientssex toys, personal letters with any sexual content or information, or any information regarding the above items.  A similar federal act (Sect. 245) of 1909[3][4] applied to delivery by interstate "express" or any other common carrier (such as railroad), rather than delivery by the U.S. Post Office. In addition to these federal laws, about half of the states enacted laws related to the federal Comstock laws. Stone, The Long and Winding History of Obscenity Law.

1879-00-00: REITMAN, BEN LEWIS: BIRTH (1879–1943) was a friend of Eve Adams and a physician to the poor known as "the hobo doctor". He is remembered today as one of radical Emma Goldman's lovers. Entry via Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Reitman

1886-05-04: LABOR.  The Haymarket affair, also known as the Haymarket massacre, the Haymarket riot, the Haymarket Square riot, or the Haymarket Incident, was the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in ChicagoIllinois, United States. via Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haymarket_affair

1891-00-00  LAW; OBSCENITY. Just how far enforcement of the Comstock Act of 1873 reached in this era is illustrated by the prosecution of Moses Harman, who published a letter to the editor in his journal in which the author of the letter related the true story of a wife who, after undergoing a difficult birth, had not yet healed sufficiently to resume intercourse. Her husband forced himself on her anyway, causing her death. The author of letter asked: “Can there be legal rape? Did the man rape his wife? . . . If a man stabs his wife to death with a knife, does not the law hold him for murder? If he murders her with his penis, what does the law do?”21 For publishing this letter, Harman was prosecuted and convicted for violating the Comstock Act. The court explained that Harman was guilty because the mere recitation of this story would shock “the common sense of decency and modesty.”22  See United States v. Harmon, 45 F. 414, 418 (D. Kan. 1891), rev’d, 50 F. 921 (C.C.D. Kan. 1892).

1891-00-00: REITMAN, Ben Lewis, age 12, goes on the road as a hobo and meets two tramps named Ohio Skip and Cincinnati Slim, who coaxed him aboard the eastbound Lake Shore freight. See Roger A. Bruns, The Damnest Radical (1987), p. 5.

1891-06-15: EVE'S BIRTH. Eve was born on June 15, 1891 (according to the Julian calendar in use in Poland, then part of the Russian Empire.  Since February 28, 1900, the Julian calendar is thirteen days behind the Gregorian calendar in use in the U.S. now.)
In this birth certificate, “Mordka Yosif Zlocower,” reported in front of two witnesses on August 14, 1891, that, on June 15 (Julian calendar), in the afternoon, his wife “Miriam Ruchla Migdal,” gave birth to a female baby given the name “Chawa.”
At the bottom of the document, among the signatures, there is one by “M J Zloczewer.” So despite the certificate’s earlier reference to his last name as “Zlocower,” he signed his last name “Zloczewer.”
Eve’s father’s casual relation to recorded birth dates is indicated by his reporting his child’s birth almost two months after the event.
Birth certificate obtained from Archiwum Państwowe w Warszawie, Oddział w Mławie, Narutowicza 3, 06-500 Mława. Translation thanks to Liliana Ossowski. 
Eve sometimes listed her birthdate as June 15, 1891, and sometimes as March 31, 1891.  Eve swore at her deportation hearing that her birth date was March 31, 1891: USDLIS], #7, November 24, 1926, p. 2.
Eve listed her birthday as June 15, 1891, when, after her arrest by the Nazis in France, a French police official wrote a receipt for money received from “Madame Eva Zloczower” on December 7, 1943; excavation book #38, 43, in French, via Memorial de la Shoah, accessed October 12, 2020, https://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/zoom.php?code=297301&q=id:p_249347. Translation thanks to Mimi Segal Daitz.
 “Mordka Josif Zloczewer” and “Mariem-Ruchla Migdal” married in 1885 per Mława PSA Births, Marriages, Deaths, Jewish Records Indexing, Poland, JewishGen, https://www.jewishgen.org/.
FAMILY MEMBERS (FIRST SOURCE): One source lists seven names of children from the Zloczewer family of Mława, headed by “Mordekhai Yosef,” a “merchant,” and “Miryam” or “Miriam” Migdall, including “Ewa” or “Eva” or “Khava,” born 1890 (sic), “single,” a “ journalist,” data submitted by her brother “Yerakhmiel Zahavi.”

Clicking on top of the first names of each person makes visible a few more details and the name of the person who supplied the information. See: the Central Database of Shoah Victims’ Names, Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, 
FAMILY MEMBERS (SECOND SOURCE): Slightly different family data is provided in a second source by Eran Zahavy, in a Zloczower family genealogy posted December 16, 2014, on the website Geni (
https://www.geni.com /family-tree/index/6000000002920263005). It includes Chawa, born 1891, and Yerachmiel Zahavy (originally Zloczewer), born May 22, 1910, in Mława, Poland, died February 20, 1983, in Tel Aviv, Israel.

1894-06-28: LABOR DAY made a federal holiday. In 1894, Congress passed a bill recognizing the first Monday of September as Labor Day and making it an official federal holiday. President Grover Cleveland signed the bill into law on June 28.

1899-00-00: AUTOBIOGRAPHY. Emigre Mary Antin's book, From Plotzk to Boston, is published. Eve was particularly likely to have taken note of Mary Antin and her book because a printer’s error in the title of Antin’s book, From Plotzk to Boston, mistakenly suggested that Antin came from the same Polish town in which Eve had attended secondary school. Antin was actually born in Polotzk (Polotsk or Polatsk), now in Belarus. See also: Antin's second autobiography, The Promised Land, is published in 1912, the year Eve arrived. Mary Antin, From Plotzk to Boston (New York: Markus Wiener Publishing, 1985; orig. publ. 1899), xii, 15.

1900-00-00 (early 20th century) THEATER. The NYC Yiddish Theatre District, also called the Jewish Rialto and the Yiddish Realto, was the center of  Yiddish theatre scene in the early 20th century. It was located primarily in the East Village. The District hosted performances in Yiddish of Jewish, Shakespearan, classic, and original plays, comedies, operettas, and dramas, as well as vaudeville, burlesque, and musical shows. It was the leading Yiddish theater district in the world. The District's theaters hosted as many as 20 to 30 shows a night. SOURCE: Wikipedia

1900-00-00: POLAND. By 1900 partitioned Poland and especially its territories under Russian rule had experienced the initial phase of fundamental economic and social transformation from the agrarian to the industrial age. The uneasy transition gave rise to a number of burning "questions" that dominated intellectual and political discourse up to the First World War. This article places the "woman question" within the context of the dynamic change then affecting Poland and in relationship to other important issues of the day. That a "woman question" was even posed indicates that women were at the center rather than the periphery of Poland's transformation. How the "woman question" was posed obviously depended on those who posed it. Consequently, there were a number of woman questions and envisioned solutions to them. Source: "The "Woman Question" in Russian Poland, 1900-1914." Robert E. Blobaum. Journal of Social History, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Summer, 2002), pp. 799-824 (26 pages).

1900-09-17: LABOR. The United Mine Workers of America was successful in its strike against soft coal mines in the Midwest in 1900. It struck on September 17, 1900, with results that surprised even the union, as miners of all different nationalities and ethnicities walked out in support of the union.

1900: LABOR. International Ladies Garment Workers Union Founded in 1900 by local union delegates representing about 2,000 members in cities in the northeastern United States, the ILGWU grew in geographical scope, membership size, political influence to become one of the most powerful forces in American organized labor by mid-century. Representing workers in the women's garment industry, the ILGWU worked to improve working and living conditions of its members through collective bargaining agreements, training programs, health care facilities, cooperative housing, educational opportunities, and other efforts.

1901-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN. Benjamin Tillman, senator from South Carolina, comments on Theodore Roosevet's dining with Booker T. Washington: "The action of President Roosevelt in entertaining that nigger will necessitate our killing a thousand niggers in the South before they learn their place again."[43]

1901-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN. Booker T. Washington's autobiography Up from Slavery is published.

1901-12-15: LABOR. Anne Morgan, daughter of the richest capitalist in the world, J. Pierpont Morgan, and Elizabeth Marbury, the masculine presenting lesbian literary agent with whom Ann has fallen in love, host a group striking workers and strike leaders in the gym in The Colony Club, a gathering place for rich ladies started by Anne.  “‘My employer,’ said one small Italian who scarcely looked the sixteen years she claimed, ‘got the priest to come around and tell the Italian girls that if we went out on strike with the Jewish girls we would all go to hell—excuse the language.’”
Another young woman, a Jewish immigrant, said: “I have a sick mother and two little sisters to support. I get three dollars and a half a week.”
Another said she worked at the Triangle Waist Company. “When a girl comes five minutes too late she is compelled to go home. She may live outside the city. It does not matter. She must go home and loses a day.” The worker continued, detailing the long hours of the busiest times of year. “We work eight days in the week,” she said. “This may seem strange to you … but we work from seven in the morning until very late at night, and sometimes we work a week and a half in one week.”Source Von Drehl, Triangle, p. 72-73

1902-02-14: REITMAN, BEN LEWIS.  Reitman, later a friend of Eve Adams, becomes the father of a daughter, Helen. She was born on February 14, 1902, in Leipzig, Sachsen, Germany. Reitman abandoned his wife, May Schwartz, and daughter when the daughter was two years old. Reitman and Schwartz eventually divorced. She and her mother went to live with her maternal grandmother, Martha Schwartz, in Illinois. Helen Reitman later renamed herself Jan Gay, the name she used when she initiated a study of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community published finally as "Sex Variants", conducted by Dr. George W. Henry and sponsored by the "Committee for the Study of Sex Variants, Inc.", which Helen founded. Ben Reitman later said: "How often in my every day life do I see parents failing, though not always as thoughtlessly as I did . . . I admit a child has rights. My daughter, too, has rights. I believe it is the sacred duty of every man to provide for his offspring until they are educated and can care for themselves. . See See Roger A. Bruns, The Damnest Radical (1987), p. 16 and  http://gayhistory.wikidot.com/helen-reitman

1903-00-00: LABOR; WOMEN. The Women's Trade Union League (WTUL) is formed. It was a U.S. organization of both well-off women and working class women to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to eliminate sweatshop conditions. The WTUL played an important role in supporting the massive strikes in the first two decades of the twentieth century that established the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and in campaigning for women's suffrage among men and women workers. Rose Schneiderman was an activist within the New York WTUL and had two  longtime woman companions.

1903-00-00: LABOR; WOMEN. The Women's Trade Union League, formed in 1903, was the first labor organization dedicated to helping working women. It did not organize them into locals; its goal was to support the AFL and encourage more women to join labor unions. It was composed of both working women and middle-class reformers and provided financial assistance, moral support, and training in work skills and social refinement for blue-collar women.

1903-09-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. W. E. B. Du Bois's article The Talented Tenth published. His book The Souls of Black Folk is published.

1904-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Joseph (“Joe”) Martin Lynching, 1904

1904-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Orlando, Florida hires its first black postman

1904-00-00: LABOR; WOMEN. Arriving in New York City, Fannia Cohn soon joined the Socialist Party of America. Cohn decided against further formal education in 1905, instead taking a job as a garment worker in order to participate directly in the Yiddish-language labor movement of New York City.

1905-00-00: LABOR. POLITICS. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), whose members became known as "Wobblies," was founded in Chicago in 1905 by a group of about 30 labor radicals. Their most prominent leader was William "Big Bill" Haywood. The IWW advocated "One Big Union" organizing all industrial workers rather than by particular industries; in fact, they went even further, pursuing the abolition of the wage system and capitalism. Many, though not all, Wobblies favored anarcho-syndicalism.

1905-07-11 AFRICAN AMERICAN. First meeting of the Niagara Movement, an interracial group to work for civil rights.[44]

1905: LABOR; WOMEN. The Ladies Dress and Waistmakers Union, Local 25 of The International Ladies Garment Workers Union is chartered in 1905 after the reorganization of unsuccessful locals. Eve Adams later became a member of this union.

1906-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. The Brownsville Affair, an incident of racial discrimination occurred in 1906 in the Southwest U.S. due to resentment by white residents of Brownsville, TX, of the Buffalo Soldiers, Black soldiers in a segregated unit stationed at nearby Fort Brown.[44]

1906-00-00  LABOR; WOMEN. In 1906 Fannia Cohn begins her efforts to organize workers in the white goods (underwear) trade. Organizing this particular trade was difficult because workers within it were of various nationalities and spoke different languages.

1907-00-00  LABOR; WOMEN. The heyday of The Women's Trade Union League came between 1907 and 1922 under the presidency of Margaret Dreier Robins.

1907-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN.  National Primitive Baptist Convention of the U.S.A. formed.

1907-08-015: LABOR. The president of the Commercial Telegraphers Union of America (CTUA) authorized a strike on August 15, 1907. Between 10,000 and 15,000 operators joined the strike as it spread across the entire U.S.

1908-00-00: GOLDMAN AND REITMAN. In 1908, Emma Goldman and Ben Reitman begin a passionate though conflict-laden intimacy, the grand though tormented romance of Goldman’s life. Goldman publicly rejected monogamy and supported lovers’ freedom to choose multiple partners, but she was distressed to learn that Reitman made advances to almost every woman he met. When Goldman heard about Reitman’s multitudinous propositions she was distraught, as bothered by his wandering penis as by her own profound attraction to him and it. His “Willie” and her “treasure box” were hot topics in the private porn notes they wrote to each other and preserved for posterity.

1908-00-00: LABOR; WOMEN. During a 1908 strike of household linen makers, Fannia Cohn met Rose Schneiderman, with whom she became closely associated. Cohn never married or cultivated a lasting romantic relationship; instead she chose to devote her life entirely to workers' education. JNK: What about non-lasting romantic relationships?

1908-00-00: LABOR. In 1908 the U.S. Supreme Court decided Loewe v. Lawlor (the Danbury Hatters' Case), stopping a Hatter's Union boycott against a nonunion company, and fining the Hatters'Union for triple damages. See 1915.

1908-00-00: REITMAN. Ben Lewis Reitman meets Emma Goldman in 1908, when he offered her use of Chicago's hobo college's Hobo Hall for a speech, and the two began a love affair, which Goldman described as the "Great Grand Passion" of her life. The two traveled together for almost eight years, working for the causes of birth controlfree speechworker's rights, and anarchism. Via Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Reitman  Reitman later became friends with Eve Adams.

1908-06-29  SUVEILANCE STATE. Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte ordered the creation of a special agent force in the Department of Justice. His order reassigned 23 investigators already employed by the department and permanently hired eight more agents from the Treasury Department. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1908-07-26  SURVEILANCE STATE. Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte ordered the special agent force in the Department of Justice to report to Chief Examiner Stanley W. Finch. This order is considered the formal beginning of the agency that became the FBI in 1935. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1908-10-05: THEATER. The Melting Pot, a stage play, opened in Washington, DC, at the Columbia Theatre, on October 5, 1908. It opened at the Comedy Theatre in New York on September 6, 1909, and ran for 136 performances. It depicts the life of a Russian Jewish immigrant family, the Quixanos, in the United States. David Quixano has survived a pogrom, which killed his mother and sister, and he wishes to forget this horrible event. He composes an "American Symphony" and wants to look forward to a society free of ethnic divisions and hatred, rather than backward at his traumatic past. SOURCE: Wikipedia

1908-12-26  AFRICAN AMERICAN.  Jack Johnson wins the World Heavyweight Title.

1909-00-00  LABOR; WOMEN. Both Fannia Cohn and Rose Schneiderman believed in the efficacy of recruiting female strike leaders from the union rank-and-file rather than relying upon a male-dominated centralized union bureaucracy for the settlement of labor disputes. They employed this outlook to bridge the ethnic gaps amongst worker in the white goods trade, finding a leader amongst the women of different ethnicities who could speak to the workers in their own language and cultivating her organizing talents. This strategy was successful and by 1909 the International Ladies Garment Workers (ILGWU) recognized the white goods' worker's union. Via Wikipedia  See Cohn, in Alphabetical list following timeline.

1909-00-00  LAW; OBSCENITY.  A  federal act (Sect. 245) of 1909[3][4] expanded on the 1873 federal obscenity law, and applied to delivery by interstate "express" or any other common carrier (such as railroad), rather than delivery by the U.S. Post Office. In addition to these federal laws, about half of the states enacted laws related to the federal Comstock laws. Stone, The Long and Winding History of Obscenity Law.

1909-02-12  AFRICAN AMERICAN.  Planned first meeting of group which would become the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), an interracial group devoted to civil rights. The meeting actually occured on May 31, but February 12 is normally cited as the NAACP's founding date.

1909-03-00  SURVEILANCE STATE.  In March 1909, Attorney General George W. Wickersham named the special service agent force in the Department of Justice the Bureau of Investigation (BOI). https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1909-05-31 AFRICAN AMERICAN. The National Negro Committee meets and is formed; it will be the precursor to the NAACP.

1909-08-14 AFRICAN AMERICAN. A lynch mob  moves through Springfield, Illinois burning the homes and businesses of black people and black sympathisers, killing many.

1909-11-00 LABOR; WOMEN. Shirtwaist strike breaks out at The Triangle Waist Company factory of Harris & Blanck, at Washington Place and Greene Street. The strikers being out five months. The strike was lost. See: https://trianglefire.ilr.cornell.edu/primary/reports/JointReliefCommittee.html

1909-11-23  LABOR; WOMEN. Shirtwaist strike breaks out at The Triangle Waist Company factory of Harris & Blanck, at Washington Place and Greene Street. The strikers being out five months. The strike was lost. See: https://trianglefire.ilr.cornell.edu/primary/reports/JointReliefCommittee.html The New York shirtwaist strike, "the uprising of the 20,00." Lead figure: Clara Lemlich (married name Shavelson); also: 1909-11-23: On November 23, 1909, more than 20,000 Yiddish-speaking immigrants, mostly young women in their teens and early twenties, launched an eleven-week general strike in New York’s shirtwaist industry. Dubbed the Uprising of the 20,000, it was the largest strike by women to date in American history. The young strikers’ courage, tenacity, and solidarity forced the predominantly male leadership in the “needle trades” and the American Federation of Labor to revise their entrenched prejudices against organizing women. The strikers won only a portion of their demands, but the uprising sparked five years of revolt that transformed the garment industry in the United States. via https://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/uprising-of-20000-1909. Leading figures: Clara Lemlich (heterosexual); Rose Schneiderman helped to organize the 1909 Shirtwaist Strike. Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_shirtwaist_strike_of_1909. Also see: https://rmc.library.cornell.edu/EAD/htmldocs/KCL05780-137.html

1909-12-22: LABOR; WOMEN. Strike leaders did not reach out only to the rich, however. They also tried to cross racial lines. Elizabeth Dutcher of the WTUL took two waist workers with her to Brooklyn to address a meeting of Black people at the A. M. E. Zion Church. Black workers were being recruited as strikebreakers, and Dutcher appealed for help in resisting this effort. During a question-and-answer period after the speeches, the audience complained about racist attitudes in the labor movement—even inside Local 25. Dutcher agreed, and the point was included in a resolution passed that evening. “Resolved, that the colored citizens of Brooklyn, in mass meeting assembled, protest and urge the women of color to refrain from acting in the capacity of strikebreakers,” the proclamation began. “We further urge … that organized labor exercise a proper consideration of the claims and demands of the men and women of color who desire to enter the various trades.” Such efforts received no attention in the mainstream press, however, and little notice on the Lower East Side. SOURCE: von Drehle via https://www.sweetstudy.com/files/david-von-drehle-triangle-the-fire-that-changedb-ok-xyz-pdf-4195729 citing NY Call, December 22, 1909.

1909: LABOR; WOMEN. Rose Schneiderman organized the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union from 1909 to 1914. Schneiderman never married and had two intimate relations with women. See Schneiderman in Alphabetical Section after Timeline.

1910-00-00   AFRICAN AMERICAN.  Allen Brooks lynching, 1910

1910-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICANThe NAACP begins publishing The Crisis.

1910-00-00: EVE'S FIRST SEXUAL EXPERIENCE WITH A WOMAN. About this year, at age nineteen, in Poland, while staying in an artists' colony, Eve probably had a first sexual experience with a woman in her thirties. This is conjectural based on Eve’s essay in her book, Lesbian Love, “How I Found Myself.” The unnamed narrator of this essay is nineteen years old, Eve’s age in 1910, two years before she immigrated from Poland. See the Appendix to Katz, The Daring Life and Dangerous Times of Eve Adams, p. 196.

1910-05-30  AFRICAN AMERICAN. The National Negro Committee chooses "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" as its organization name.

1910-06-25   LAW. Congress passed the White Slave Traffic Act, also known as the Mann Act. The new law significantly increased the Bureau of Investigation’s jurisdiction over interstate crime. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1910-09-29  AFRICAN AMERICAN.Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes formed; the next year it will merge with other groups to form the National Urban League.

1911-00-00  LABOR. Illinois Central and Harriman Line Rail Strike occurred.[25]  

1911-00-00  LABOR. Southern Lumber Operators' Lockout began.[25]

1911-00-00  LABOR. The Locomotive Inspection Act passed. Four years later, the Hours of Service Act passed. The Railroad Brotherhoods had won an eight-hour day.

1911-00-00  LABOR. The Supreme Court in Gompers v. Buck's Stove and Range Co. (221 U.S. 418) affirmed a lower court order for the AFL to stop interfering with Buck's Stove and Range Company's business or boycotting its products or distributors.[25] On 24 June 1912 in the second contempt trial, the defendants (Samuel Gompers, John Mitchell, and Frank Morrison) were again found guilty and sentenced to prison. The Supreme Court overturned the convictions because the new proceedings had not been instituted within the three-year statute of limitations (233 U.S. 604 1914).[26]

1911-00-00: LABOR; WOMEN. Rose Schneiderman participated in founding the Wage Earner’s League for Woman Suffrage and promoted the Ohio suffrage referendum in 1912.

1911-03-25  LABOR. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire The Triangle Shirtwaist Company, occupying the top three floors of a ten-story building in New York City, was consumed by fire. One hundred and forty-six people, mostly women and young girls working in sweatshop conditions, died.[25]

1911-03-25: LABOR; WOMEN.Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire via Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangle_Shirtwaist_Factory_fire

1911-12-04: LABOR; WOMEN.The trial of the Triangle Shirtwaist company owners Harris and Blanck began on December 4, 1911, in the courtroom of Judge Thomas Crain. Harris and Blanck were defended by a giant of the New York legal establishment, forty-one-year-old Max D. Steuer. Heading up the prosecution team was Assistant District Attorney Charles S. Bostwick.

1912-00-00  LABOR. Chicago newspaper strike occurred.[25]

1912-00-00  LABOR. Fur Workers' Strike occurred.[25]

1912-00-00  LABOR. IWW Free Speech Fight occurred in San Diego, California.[25]

1912-00-00  LABOR. Massachusetts passes the first minimum wage law for women and minors.[25]

1912-00-00  LABOR. New York City Hotel Strike occurred.[25]

1912-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN.62 lynchings of Blacks

1912-00-00 STRIKE Chicago Newspaper strike of 1912

1912-00-00 STRIKE Little Falls textile strike

1912-00-00 STRIKE NYC New York City waiters' strike

1912-00-00 STRIKE Paint Creek–Cabin Creek strike

1912-00-00 STRIKE Seattle Fishermen halibut strike

1912-00-00: AUTOBIOGRAPHY. Mary Antin's The Promised Land, a Jewish woman emigre's second memoir, is published. It tells the story of her early life in what is now Belarus and her immigration to the United States in 1894. The book focuses on her attempts to assimilate into the culture of the United States. It received very positive reviews and sold more than 85,000 copies in the three decades after its release. The book's popularity allowed Antin to begin speaking publicly, a platform that she used to promote acceptance of immigration to the United States. It was criticized by anti-immigration activists, who did not see Antin as an American. It was also criticized by some Jews, who felt that she was disrespectful towards her Jewish heritage. via Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Promised_Land

1912-00-00: THEATER. The American Little Theatre Movement begins with the founding of the Toy Theatre in Boston and the Little Theatre of Chicago.

1912-01-00  LABOR; WOMEN. Textile Strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts, often known as the "Bread and Roses" Strike. Dozens of different immigrant communities united under the leadership of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in a largely successful strike led to a large extent by women. The strike is credited with inventing the moving picket line, a tactic devised to keep strikers from being arrested for loitering.[25] It also adopted a tactic used before in Europe, but never in the United States, of sending children to sympathizers in other cities when they could not be cared for by strike funds. On 24 February, women attempting to put their children on a train out of town were beaten by police, shocking the nation.[22][27] See Lawrence "Bread & Roses" textile strike.

1912-03-00: In March 1912, Bostwick attempted to prosecute Blanck and Harris again, this time for the manslaughter death of another fire victim, Jake Kline. However, Judge Samuel Seabury instructed the jury that the men were being "tried for the same offense, and under our Constitution and laws, this cannot be done." He told the jury to "find a verdict for the defendants." Source, Linder, "Triangle Fire"

1912-04-15: TITANIC SINKS in the early morning hours of 15 April 1912 in the North Atlantic Ocean

1912-04-18  LABOR. The National Guard was called out against striking West Virginia coal miners at the Paint Creek and Cabin Creek, West Virginia mines.[25]

1912-04-30   BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION. Former Examiner A. Bruce Bielaski, Chief Stanley W. Finch’s assistant since 1909, was appointed Chief of the Bureau of Investigation. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1912-05-00: GOLDMAN AND REITMAN. The month before Eve’s arrival, on the lecture circuit, Goldman and Reitman arrived in San Diego, California, to support free speech advocates against vicious, violent vigilante opponents. Reitman was kidnapped at gunpoint and almost murdered. Reitman described this harrowing experience in Mother Earth in June 1912. After he was carried by car to an isolated country spot, a “Respectable Mob” of fourteen men “formed a ring around me and commanded me to undress. They tore my clothes from me, and in a minute I stood before them naked.” He was then” knocked down and compelled to kiss the American flag.” "When I lay naked on the ground, my tormentors kicked and beat me until I was almost insensible. With a lighted cigar they burned I.W.W. [for the militant labor organization Industrial Workers of the World] on my buttocks; they then poured a can of tar over my head and body, and in the absence of feathers, they rubbed handfuls of sage brush on my body. One very gentle business man, who is active in church work, deliberately attempted to push my cane into my rectum. One unassuming banker twisted my testicles."

1912-05-12: BEN LEWIS REITMAN is kidnapped and tortured in San Diego, California, where he had gone with Emma Goldman to support a free speech fight. Via Wikipeda at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Reitman  Detailed account at: https://www.sandiegoreader.com/news/2012/jul/04/unforgettable-big-noise/

1912-05-25: EVE SETS SAIL for the U.S. on May 25, 1912, sailing from Antwerp, Belgium. See: List or Manifest of Alien Passengers for the United States Immigration Officer at Port of Arrival, SS Vaderland , sailing from Antwerp, Belgium, May 25, 1912, via “Chawe Zlocsewer,” New York, Passenger and Crew Lists (Including Castle Garden and Ellis Island), 1820–1957, Ancestry.com.

1912-06-04: EVE ARRIVES IN THE U.S. on Tuesday, June 4, 1912. “List or Manifest of Alien Passengers,” SS Vaderland. Zlocsewer, Chame [sic for “Chawe” which is the spelling actually written], New York, Passenger Lists, 1820-1957, Role T715 1897-1957.
LIVED WITH UNCLE: Eve testified that she first lived with her uncle Isidore Meegdal [her mother's brother] and his family in the Bronx. Eve’s testimony, April 11, 1927, USDLIS #7, 7 (17 of whole file). Eve soon "acquired English and further education at Washington Irving High School." [JNK: RESEARCH]
See: 1926-07-02: Probation Report.

1912-06-05  U.S. IMPERIALISM. June 5 – U.S. Marines land in Cuba.

1912-07-00  LABOR. Striking members of the Brotherhood of Timber Workers and supporters are involved in an armed confrontation with the Galloway Lumber Company and supporters in the Grabow Riot, resulting in four deaths and 40 to 50 wounded.[25]

1912-07-00 (date approximate guess): EVE GOES TO WORK. Very soon after Eve's arrival she probably started working as a "tailoress" to make a living. Eve told agents of the Bureau of Investigation that she had worked in a lady's shirtwaist factory in New York owned or managed by a "Mr. Halperin," and that she belonged to the Ladies Waist-Makers Union. Eve is quoted in replies to Bureau of Investigation Agent Deuber and Agent Farrell. A person named "N. Halperin" in 1921 won a dept owed by the "Princess Shirt Waist Mfg. Co." (See Halperin document).

1912-08-04  U.S. IMPERIALISM United States occupation of NicaraguaU.S. Marines land from the USS Annapolis in Nicaragua, to support the conservative government at its request.

1912-09-12: AUTOBIOGRAPHY. Alexander Berkman's Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist is published. Has three major sections on homosex in prison, including his own falling in love with a younger prisoner. Could be an influence on Eve telling her story?.

1912-09-28 MUSIC. Composer W. C. Handy publishes his "Southern rag" "The Memphis Blues".

1912-11--05 POLITICS. U.S. presidential election, 1912Democratic challenger and Governor of New Jersey Woodrow Wilson wins a landslide victory over Republican incumbent William Howard Taft. Taft's base is undercut by Progressive Party candidate (and former Republican) Theodore Roosevelt, who finishes second, ahead of Taft.

1913-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. The Moorish Science Temple of America, a religious organization, is founded by Noble Drew Ali (Timothy Drew).

1913-00-00  LABOR. Machinists Strike and Boycott[25]

1913-00-00  LABOR. Paterson, New Jersey, Textile Strike[25]

1913-00-00  LABOR. Rubber Workers' Strike[25]

1913-00-00  LABOR. Studebaker Motors Auto Workers' Strike[25]

1913-00-00  LABOR. U.S. Department of Labor established.[25]

1913-00-00  LABOR. Wheatland, California, Hop Riot[25]

1913-00-00  LABOR.Michigan Copper Strike[25]

1913-00-00  LAW; OBSCENITY.  In 1913, in United States v. Kennerly, 23 for example, Judge Learned Hand maintained that few people would be “content to reduce our treatment of sex to the standard of a child’s library.” He therefore maintained that the word “obscene” should be defined in terms of “the present critical point in the compromise between candor and shame at which the community may have arrived here and now.”  See 209 F. 119, 121 (S.D.N.Y. 1913). Stone, The Long and Winding History of Obscenity Law.

1913-00-00 – 1918-00-00 (date an approximate guess): Eve moves in with New York City friends for five or six years, from about 1913 to about 1918, or 1919. SOURCE: Eve’s testimony, April 11, 1927, USDLIS #7, 7 (17 of the whole file)

1913-00-00 (date approximate guess). EVE WORKS FOR MOTHER EARTH Some time probably fairly early in her life in New York, Eve joined Ben Reitman's work in the New York City Mother Earth office, publicizing Emma Goldman's speaking engagements.  Mother Earth was the American anarchist journal that described itself as "A Monthly Magazine Devoted to Social Science and Literature". Founded in early 1906 and initially edited by Emma Goldman, an activist in the United States, it published articles by contemporary activists and writers in Europe as well as the US, in addition to essays by historic figures. Sources: Katz, Daring Life; about Mother Earth: Wikipedia

1913-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN.51 lynchings of Blacks

1913-00-00 STRIKE Colorado Coalfield War

1913-00-00 STRIKE Copper Country strike of 1913–1914

1913-00-00 STRIKE El Paso smelters' strike

1913-00-00 STRIKE Indianapolis streetcar strike

1913-00-00 STRIKE Paterson silk strike

1913-00-00: FITGERALD, ELEANOR "FITZI", moved from Chicago to New York City with Ben Reitman in 1913; the two lived with Emma Goldman. Fitzgerald became assistant editor of Mother Earth alongside Goldman. Eve Adams at an unknown date joined the Mother Earth publicity man, Ben Reitman, assisting him in this work. Via Wikipedia

1913-00-00: LABOR; WOMEN. As the garment industry expanded over the years, so did Local 25 Waist and Dress Makers' Union, which would soon become the biggest local in the union.
In the beginning of 1913, another strike involved 30,000 workers and resulted in a collective agreement. https://rmc.library.cornell.edu/EAD/htmldocs/KCL05780-who137.html

1913-06-11 LABOR. Police shot into a crowd of maritime workers (two of whom was killed) who were striking against the United Fruit Company in New Orleans.[28]: 58–59 

1913-09-00: ANTI-SEMITISM IN U.S. The Anti-Defamation League (ADL), formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, an international Jewish organization specializing in civil rights law, was founded in late September 1913 by the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, a Jewish service organization, in the wake of the contentious murder conviction of Leo Frank. ADL subsequently split from B'nai B'rith and continued as an independent US nonprofit. SOURCE: Wikipedia.

1913-09-23: LABOR. On 23 September 1913, the United Mine Workers of America declared a strike against the Rockefeller-owned Colorado Fuel and Iron, in what is better known as the Colorado Coalfield War. See 1914.

1914-00-00  LABOR. According to a report by the Commission on Industrial Relations, approximately 35,000 workers were killed in industrial accidents and 700,000 workers were injured in the U.S.

1914-00-00  LABOR. Amalgamated Clothing Workers founded.[25]

1914-00-00  LABOR. Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill Strike occurred.

1914-00-00  LABOR. The Ford Motor Company raised its basic wage from $2.40 for a nine-hour day to $5 for an eight-hour day.

1914-00-00  LABOR. U.S. Congress passes the Clayton Antitrust Act limiting the use of injunctions in labor disputes.[25]

1914-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN. Newly elected president Woodrow Wilson orders physical re-segregation of federal workplaces and employment after nearly 50 years of integrated facilities.[45][46][47]

1914-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN.51 lynchings of Blacks

1914-00-00: ELEANOR "FITZI" FITGERALD was part of the Union Square rallies against unemployment. She was also a member of the Heterodoxy club during this time. Fitzi was part of the Mother Earth team which Eve Adams joined. Via Wikipedia.

1914-00-00: POLITICS. LAW. The Clayton Act of 1914 supposedly exempted unions from any antitrust prohibition and established for the first time the Congressional principle that "the labor of a human being is not a commodity or article of commerce." However, judicial interpretation so weakened The Clayton Act that prosecutions of labor under the antitrust acts continued.

1914-01-14  LABOR leader Joe Hill was arrested in Salt Lake CityUtah. He was convicted on murder charges, and was executed 21 months later despite worldwide protests and two attempts to intervene by President Woodrow Wilson. In a letter to Bill Haywood shortly before his death he penned the famous words, "Don't mourn - organize!"

1914-04-20  LABOR. The "Ludlow Massacre." In an attempt to persuade strikers at Colorado's Ludlow Mine Field to return to work, company "guards," engaged by John D. Rockefeller Jr. and other mine operators and sworn into the State Militia just for the occasion, attacked a union tent camp with machine guns, then set it afire. Five men, two women and 12 children died as a result.[4][5]

1914-04-20: LABOR. The peak of the violence in the Colorado Coalfield War came after months of back-and-forth murders that culminated in the 20 April 1914 Ludlow Massacre that killed over a dozen women and children when Colorado National Guard opened fire on a striker encampment at Ludlow. The strike is considered the deadliest labor unrest in American history. See 1903-09-23.

1914-05-20  LABOR. Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills strike begins in AtlantaGeorgia. Continues into 1915.

1914-07-28: WAR IN EUROPE. Two years after Eve’s arrival in the United States, leaders of Germany and Austria-Hungary challenged leaders of France, Russia, and Britain to battle. The men challenged agreed to fight. Initiating colossal violence, a multi-nation war began in Europe, fought by seventy million grunts, and resulting in nine million combatant deaths and seven million civilian deaths. Source: Katz, Daring Life, 28.

1914-07-28: WAR STARTS. Two years after Eve’s arrival in the United States, leaders of Germany and Austria-Hungary challenged leaders of France, Russia, and Britain to battle. The men challenged agreed to fight. Initiating colossal violence, a multination war began in Europe, fought by seventy million grunts, and resulting in nine million combatant deaths and seven million civilian deaths.

1914-08-00   WAR.  World War I began in Europe, placing additional responsibilities on the US Bureau of Investigation. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1914-11-13  LABOR. A Western Federation of Miners strike is crushed by the militia in ButteMontana.

1915-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. A schism from the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. forms the National Baptist Convention of America, Inc.

1915-00-00  LABOR. Bayonne refinery strikes of 1915–1916 against Standard Oil began.[25]

1915-00-00  LABOR. U.S. Congress passed the La Follette Seamen's Act regulating working conditions for seamen.[25]

1915-00-00  LABOR. Youngstown, Ohio, Steel Strike occurred.[25]

1915-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN. 56 lynchings of Blacks

1915-00-00: ANTI-SEMITISM IN U.S. The second Ku Klux Klan started in 1915 as a small group in Georgia.  It grew after 1920 and flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, including urban areas of the Midwest and West. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacy, often took a pro-Prohibition and pro-compulsory public education stance, and it opposed Jews, while also stressing its opposition to the alleged political power of the pope and the Catholic Church. SOURCE: Wikipedia entry on Ku Klux Klan. 

1915-00-00: ELEANOR "FITZI" FITGERALD moved to San Francisco with Alexander Berkman, and edited The Blast with him. She had probably earlier worked with Eve Adams on the Mother Earth team. Wikipedia.

1915-00-00: LABOR; LAW. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a lower federal court ruling ordering the Hatters' Union to pay damages of $252,130l and the life savings of several hundreds of the Union's members were attached. The ruling established a major precedent and became a serious issue for the unions.

1915-01-19  LABOR. Twenty rioting strikers were shot by factory guards at RooseveltNew Jersey.

1915-01-25  LABOR. The Supreme Court upholds "yellow dog" contracts, which forbid membership in labor unions.

1915-02-08  AFRICAN AMERICAN. The Birth of a Nation is released to film theaters. The NAACP protests in cities across the country, convincing some not to show the film.

1915-06-21  AFRICAN AMERICAN. In Guinn v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court rules against grandfather clauses used to deny blacks the right to vote.

1915-09-09 AFRICAN AMERICAN. Carter G. Woodson founds the Association for the Study of African American Life and History in Chicago.

1915, August 16: ANTI-SEMITISM IN U.S. On August 16, 1915, Leo Frank, a Jewish man who had earlier been convicted of murdering a young woman, Mary Phagan, in Atlanta, Georgia, was kidnapped from prison by a group of armed men. The next morning Frank was lynched at Marietta, Phagan's hometown. The new governor vowed to punish the lynchers, who included prominent Marietta citizens, but nobody was charged. In 1986, Frank was posthumously pardoned by the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles, although not officially absolved of the crime. SOURCE: Wikipedia entry on Leo Frank.

1916  LABOR. Minnesota Iron Range Strike[25]

1916-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. 50 lynchings of Blacks

1916-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Jesse Washington lynching, 1916 MAJOR

1916-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Los Angeles hires the country's first black female police officer.[citation needed]

1916-00-00  LABOR.  U.S. Congress passed the Federal Child Labor Law, which was later ruled unconstitutional.[25]

1916-00-00  LABOR. American Federation of Teachers founded.[25]

1916-00-00  LABOR. Arizona Copper Strike[25]

1916-00-00  LABOR. Bayonne refinery strikes of 1915–1916 against Standard Oil continued.[25]

1916-00-00  LABOR. New York City Transit Strike[25]

1916-00-00  LABOR. New York Cloakmakers' Strike[25]

1916-00-00  LABOR. U.S. Congress passed the Adamson Act, which established an eight-hour workday for railroad workers.[25]

1916-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN.The Great Migration begins and lasts until 1940. Approximately one and a half million African Americans move from the Southern United States to the North and Midwest.

1916-00-00 LABOR. "Sympathy Labor Parade" in New York during the Minnesota Iron Range Strike, 1916

1916-00-00 LABOR. San Francisco Open Shop Campaign began.[25]

1916-01-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Carter Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History begins publishing the Journal of Negro History, the first academic journal devoted to the study of African-American history.

1916-02-00: LABOR.Garment workers left their shops again in February 1916 ending with a revised Protocol. It was also at this time [?] that Local 25 began a summer vacation resort for its members, an idea that would soon take off with the International and become Unity House. https://rmc.library.cornell.edu/EAD/htmldocs/KCL05780-137.html

1916-02-11  EMMA GOLDMAN ARRESTED in NYC for talking publicly about birth control.

1916-03-23  AFRICAN AMERICAN.  Marcus Garvey arrives in the U.S. (see Garveyism).

1916-04-27  BEN LEWIS REITMAN ARRESTED for talking publicly about birth control, and violating the Comstock laws.  Reitman served a six-month sentence, the longest ever served by a birth-control advocate in the United States. Under the Comstock laws, discussing sex or contraception in public was illegal. Just prior to his incarceration, Reitman remarried. This marriage produced Reitman's second child, a son, who was born while his father sat in prison. Wexler, Intimate, pp. 211–215

1916-07-22  LABOR. A bomb was set off during a "Preparedness Day" parade in San Francisco, killing 10 and injuring 40 more. Thomas J. Mooney, a labor organizer and Warren K. Billings, a shoe worker, were convicted, but were both pardoned in 1939.[25]

1916-08-19 LABOR. Strikebreakers hired by the Everett Mills owner Neil Jamison attacked and beat picketing strikers in Everett, Washington.[25] Local police watched and refused to intervene. 
Three days later, twenty-two union men attempted to speak out at a local crossroads, but each was arrested; arrests and beatings of strikebreakers became common throughout the following months, and on 30 October vigilantes forced IWW speakers to run the gauntlet, subjecting them to whipping, tripping kicking, and impalement against a spiked cattle guard at the end of the gauntlet. In response, the IWW called for a meeting on 5 November. When the union men arrived, they were fired on; seven people were killed, 50 were wounded, and an indeterminate number wound up missing.

1916-09-07  LABOR. Federal employees win the right to receive Worker's Compensation insurance.

1916-10-20 EMMA GOLDMAN ARRESTED for going to court in New York City to testify on behalf of a fellow birth control advocate. She is released on $500 bond and is acquitted of the charge on January 8, the following year.

1916-11-05  LABOR.The Everett Massacre (also known as Bloody Sunday) was an armed confrontation between local authorities and members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) union, commonly called "Wobblies", which took place in Everett, Washington on Sunday, 5 November 1916. The tragic event marked a time of rising tensions in Pacific Northwest labor history.

1916-11-07:  WAR. President Woodrow Wilson, who ran on the campaign slogan “He Kept Us Out of War,” won reelection. Seven months later, President “He Kept Us Out of War” Wilson urged members of the US Congress to declare war on Germany. They obeyed.

1916-11-07: U.S. DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY. President Woodrow Wilson, who ran on the campaign slogan “He Kept Us Out of War,” won reelection. Seven months later, President “He Kept Us Out of War” Wilson urged members of the US Congress to declare war on Germany. They obeyed. Source: Katz, Daring Life. 28. 

1916-12-12  BEN REITMAN ARRESTED for publicly advocating birth control, and convicted on January 17, 1917, and he serves six months in prison.

1917-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. 36 lynchings of Blacks

1917-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. In Buchanan v. Warley, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rules that a ban on selling property in white-majority neighborhoods to black people and vice versa violates the 14th Amendment.

1917-00-00  LABOR; WOMEN. Pauline ["Paul"!] Newman on Unity House, the union resort in the country that Eve's Little Jimmie goes to] and the "mysterious bond between working sisters":
"A trade union is something more than an organization to fight for our rights, to increase our wages in the shop. It is also a great cooperative group which should spend together as well as earn together, which should enjoy together as well as suffer together, which should learn together as well as fight together… We learned at Unity House that there is a mysterious bond between working sisters just as there is between sisters in a family. And we only wished that devotion and that sisterhood would have more opportunity to lift its head in our shops. Pauline Newman, “Unity House,” The Message, February 23, 1917. Quoted in Annelise Orleck, Common Sense and a Little Fire (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 177.

1917-00-00  LABOR. RACE. East St. Louis Race Riot occurred.[29]

1917-00-00  LABOR. Green Corn Rebellion occurred.[29]

1917-00-00  LABOR. In "Hitchman Coal and Coke vs. Mitchell", U.S. Supreme Court upholds the legality of yellow-dog contracts.[29]

1917-00-00  LABOR. Thomas Mooney sentenced to death for his participation in the San Francisco Preparedness Day Bombing of 1916.[29]

1917-00-00 BEN LEWIS REITMAN AND EMMA GOLDMAN'S relationship collapsed sometime in 1917 after their last campaign for birth control.

1917-00-00: ELEANOR "FITZI" FITGERALD raised the bail when Goldman and Berkman were arrested in 1917. She moved into theatrical work in 1918. She had earlier worked on the Mother Earth team with Ben Lewis Reitman and Eve Adams.  Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_Fitzgerald

1917-03-15  LABOR. The Supreme Court approved the Eight-Hour Act under the threat of a national railway strike.


1917-04-06   WAR.  On April 6, 1917, Congress declared war on Germany, and President Woodrow Wilson authorized the Bureau of Investigation to detain enemy aliens. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1917-05-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. East St. Louis Riot

1917-05-00  ALEXANDER BERKMAN AND EMMA GOLDMAN create the No-Conscription league in May 1917 to oppose US involvement in  the European War. Goldman and Berkman are then charged in 1917 for "conspiring against the draft".

1917-06-04: EVE ATTENDS EMMA GOLDMAN ANTi-CONSCRIPTION SPEECH. On June 4, 1917, Eve attended an anti-draft rally in which Emma Goldman dramatically declared: “I have only one life to give, and if my life is to be given for an ideal, for the liberation of the people, soldiers, help yourselves.” Goldman’s declaration at the rally was transcribed by a shorthand reporter hired by the No-Conscription League. See: Charles Pickler, “Meeting of No- Conscription League Including Speech by Emma Goldman,” June 4, 1917, Emma Goldman Papers, https://www.lib.berkeley.edu/goldman/pdfs/Speeches-Meeting of No-Conscription League.pdf.  Eve says in her 1918 letter to Fania Marinoff that she heard Goldman give a version of the speech quoted above. It is unlikely that Goldman's declaration occurred at more than one of her speaking engagements.

1917-06-06  U.S. ENTERS THE EUROPEAN WAR. On April 4, 1917, the U.S. Senate votes in support of the measure to declare war on Germany. The House concurred two days later on April 6.

1917-06-12  LABOR.The Bisbee Deportation:[29] After seizing the local Western Union telegraph office in order to cut off outside communication, several thousand armed vigilantes forced 1,185 men in Bisbee, Arizona into manure-laden boxcars and "deported" them to the New Mexico desert. The action was precipitated by a strike when workers' demands (including improvements to safety and working conditions at the local copper mines, an end to discrimination against labor organizations and unequal treatment of foreign and minority workers, and the institution of a fair wage system) went unmet. The "deportation" was organized by Sheriff Harry Wheeler. The incident was investigated months later by a Federal Mediation Commission set up by President Woodrow Wilson; the Commission found that no federal law applied, and referred the case to the State of Arizona, which failed to take any action, citing patriotism and support for the war as justification for the vigilantes' action.

1917-06-15  LAW. Congress passed the Espionage Act of 1917. The act forbade espionage, interference with the draft, or attempts to discourage loyalty. It greatly increased the Bureau of Investigation's ability to deal with espionage and subversion during the war, but a lack of personnel hampered Bureau efforts in enforcing the law. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1917-06-15: LAW. ESPIONAGE ACT. Congress passed the Espionage Act, establishing large fines and twenty years in jail for those convicted of obstructing the draft.1917-06-15: ESPIONAGE ACT. Congress passed the Espionage Act, establishing large fines and twenty years in jail for those convicted of obstructing the draft and it is signed on this date. Emma Goldman is arrested the day the Espionage Act is passed and later convicted “for conspiring against the draft” under the Espionage Act. Reitman also arrested. Check date.

1917-06-18:  LAW.  SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT. The U.S. Congress passed the Selective Service Act, requiring males between twenty-one and thirty to register for the draft. Source: Katz, Daring Life. 28.

1917-07-09: EMMA GOLDMAN speech on patriotism (excerpt).

1917-08-01 LABOR. IWW organizer Frank Little was lynched in ButteMontana.

1917-08-23  AFRICAN AMERICAN.  Houston Riot

1917-09-05  U.S. DEPT. OF JUSTICE; BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION. Federal agents raid the IWW headquarters in 48 cities. U.S. Department of Justice agents makes simultaneous raids on dozens of IWW meeting halls across the country.[37]: 406  Minutes books, correspondence, mailing lists, and publications were seized, with the U.S. Department of Justice removing five tons of material from the IWW's General Office in Chicago alone.[37]: 406  


1917-12-00 BEN LEWIS REITMAN AND EMMA GOLDMAN begin their prison sentences in December 1917.

1917-12-00: KATE RICHARDS O'HARE, "Waiting." In anticipation of her trial and jailing. Social Revolution, Dec. 1917, v. XIV, n.10. via Marxists.org. 

1917-12-07   U.S. DECLARES WAR on German ally Austria-Hungary on December 7, 1917.

1918-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN.  Viola Pettus, an African-American nurse in Marathon, TX., wins attention for her courageous care of victims of the Spanish Influenza, including members of the Ku Klux Klan. 

1918-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. 50 lynchings of Blacks

1918-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Mary Turner was a 33-year-old lynched in Lowndes County, Georgia who was Eight months pregnant. Turner and her child were murdered after she publicly denounced the extrajudicial killing of her husband by a mob. Her death is considered a stark example of racially motivated mob violence in the American south, and was referenced by the NAACP's anti-lynching campaign of the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s.

1918-00-00  LABOR. War Labor Board created.[29]  War Labor Policies Board (1918-1919) created

1918-00-00 - 1920-00-00: THE FIRST RED SCARE was a period during the early 20th-century history of the U.S. marked by a widespread fear of union organizing and left organizing including Bolshevism and anarchism. Source: Wikipedia.

1918-00-00: ANTI-SEMITISM IN U.S.  In 1918, in Michigan, Henry Ford purchased his hometown newspaper, The Dearborn Independent.[75]  A year and a half later, Ford began publishing a series of articles in the paper under his own name, claiming a vast Jewish conspiracy was affecting America.[76] The series ran in 91 issues. Every Ford dealership nationwide was required to carry the paper and distribute it to its customers. Ford later bound the articles into four volumes entitled The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem, which was translated into multiple languages and distributed widely across the US and Europe.[77][78] The International Jew blamed nearly all the troubles it saw in American society on Jews.[76] The Independent ran for eight years, from 1920 until 1927. With around 700,000 readers of his newspaper, Ford emerged as a "spokesman for right-wing extremism and religious prejudice."[79]

1918-02-21: EVE IS PROBABLY SALESWOMAN IN NYC for Jacob Marinoff''s Yiddish language journal and probably the Liberator (date approximate guess based on her contact with Jacob Marinoff). See Eve to Fania Marinoff.

1918-02-21: EVE TO FANIA MARINOFF. On February 21, 1918, Eve, as “Eve Zlotchever,” wrote a fervid fan letter to actress Fania Marinoff, starring in the free-love play, Karen: Eve Zlotchever to Fania Marinoff, February 21, 1918, series 1 (Correspondence), box 175, folder 2255, Carl Van Vechten Papers (YCAL MSS 1050), Beinecke Library, Yale University. Online at: https://collections.library.yale.edu/catalog/17064306
Eve was almost certainly already working for Marinoff’s brother Jacob, selling his publication, the Yiddish satirical weekly, Der Groyser Kundes (The Big Stick or The Big Prankster). 

1918-05-16. LAW; U.S. SEDITION ACT PASSED extending the Espionage Act to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds.

1918-06-03  LABOR. A Federal child labor law, enacted two years earlier, was declared unconstitutional. A new law was enacted 24 February 1919, but this one too was declared unconstitutional (on 2 June 1924).

1919-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. 76 lynchings of Blacks

1919-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Red Summer of 1919 riots: Chiago, Washington, D.C., Knoxville, Indianapolis and elsewhere. 

1919-00-00  LABOR; WOMEN. "Unity House: Forest Park, PA, Ladies Waist and Dressmakers Union.  In 1919, Lederer sold Forest Park’s buildings, 750 acres, and a lake for $85,000 to Locals 22 and 25 of the Dress and Waistmakers' Union, a radical union of Jewish, New York City women garment workers. The next year, he sold the adjoining 2,196 acres and Lake Tamiment to the Rand School of Social Science, a New York City school for workers closely allied with the Socialist Party. The Locals bold experiment in running a worker resort near the summer homes of millionaires, however, soon floundered.  So in 1924, they sold the property to the General Executive Board of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU), the largest women’s union in the United States, which undertook a series of major improvements that would transform Unity House into a "workers' play land."
Less concerned about profits than with showing "labor in its proper light," the ILGWU renovated the main building, expanded the kitchen, built an amphitheatre, added new bungalows, and increased wages for its expanded staff, which included on-site doctor, chef, and dietician.  To make attendance affordable to rank and file members, it charged minimal fees and, when necessary, financially subsidized the operation.
Representing "a promise of a better day and our ability to bring that day," Unity House thrived during the 1920s. https://explorepahistory.com/hmarker.php?markerId=1-A-366
Next door, Camp Tamiment, soon heralded as the "largest summer school and camp for workers in the world," built its own bungalow colony, called Sandyville, and opened the Tamiment Playhouse, which offered a growing variety of theater, dance, and musical programs, many of them presented by resident companies. https://explorepahistory.com/hmarker.php?markerId=1-A-366

1919-00-00  LABOR.  Actors Strike occurred.[29]

1919-00-00  LABOR. Fall River, Massachusetts, Textile Strike occurred.[19]

1919-00-00  LABOR. Farmer-Labor Party founded.[29]

1919-00-00  LABOR. International Federation of Trade Unions is founded. (EUROPE)

1919-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN. The Omaha Courthouse Lynching, 1919 MAJOR

1919-00-00 POLITICS; SOCIALISM. Communist Party of America founded.[29]  First National Convention, 1919 November 22, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

1919-02-00: Eve starts selling the socialist Liberator edited then by Max Eastman, probably in addition to Der Grosser Gundes.

1919-06-00: POLITICS. LAW. ATTORNEY GENERAL PALMER  told the House Appropriations Committee that all evidence promised that radicals would "on a certain day...rise up and destroy the government at one fell swoop." He requested an increase in his budget to $2,000,000 from $1,500,000 to support his investigations of radicals, but Congress limited the increase to $100,000.[7]

1919-06-39  BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION.  Attorney General Palmer directed that the Bureau of Investigation be placed under the Assistant Attorney General’s direction. William J. Flynn, former Chief of the Secret Service, was named Director of the Bureau of Investigation. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1919-07-00:  SURVEILANCE STATE. POLICING. LAW. An initial Palmer raid in July 1919 against an anarchist group in Buffalo, New York, achieved little when a federal judge tossed out Palmer's case. He found in the case that the three arrested radicals, charged under a law dating from the Civil War, had proposed transforming the government by using their free speech rights and not by violence.[8] That taught Palmer that he needed to exploit the more powerful immigration statutes that authorized the deportation of alien anarchists, violent or not. To do that, he needed to enlist the cooperation of officials at the Department of Labor. Only the Secretary of Labor could issue warrants for the arrest of alien violators of the Immigration Acts, and only he could sign deportation orders following a hearing by an immigration inspector.[9]

1919-07-14 Eve's first surveillance. On July 14, 1919, a Waterbury, Connecticut, police official telephones Bureau of Investigation (BOI) agent Warren G. Grimes, in New Haven, to say that “Eva Adams” is in town.
This is the earliest dated report of Eve using her new last name. (She was also probably using “Eve,” not “Eva.”)
This is also the earliest report of Eve traveling as saleswoman of radical periodicals. In a later description of Eve, a columnist cites her as among the increasing number of “hoboettes,” women who are taking to the road looking for work and adventure. See 1926-04-04.
The BOI agent above says that Eva was “believed to be an agitator,” an organizer for the Industrial Workers of the World, the militant labor organization that US government officials had already taken active, largely successful, steps to crush. 
Agent Grimes and agent J. W. R. Chamberlin that day traveled to Waterbury and searched Eve’s hotel room and confiscated some of her belongings, including “considerable printed literature and subscription blanks to a radical publication.” Warren W. Grimes and J. W. R. Chamberlin, “Eva Adams: I.W.W. Organizer,” July 14 & 26, 1919, via “Eva Adams (#370872),” images 3519525, 3519529, 3519536, and 3519539, FBI Case Files, Fold3/Ancestry.com.
Fold3 requires a paid subscription to access the files, but they are also available for free via ALIC at a US National Archives facility.
Case files on “Eva Adam” or “Adams” are listed as “Bureau Section File 202600-171” and “Bureau Section File 202600-995,” record group 65, Records of the Bureau of Investigation. The original records are microfilmed as publication M1085. See: 
1919, July 14: Agent Grimes, BOI, New Haven, CT, re "Eva Adams: I. W. W. Organizer" and 1919, July 14: Agent Chamberlin, BOI. New Haven, CT, re "Eva Adams: I. W. W. Organizer"

1919-08-01: U.S. GOVERNMENT; RADICAL DIVISION FORMED. the month after the first known surveillance of Eve, US attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer officially created a new “Radical Division” within the Bureau of Investigation to collect data on militant labor organizers, leftists, liberals, pacifists, and other dissenters. A twenty-four-year-old, John Edgar Hoover, was appointed head of the division and created a new “Radical Activities Index.”

1919-09-09 LABOR. BOSTON POLICE STRIKE occurred on September 9, 1919, when Boston police officers went on strike seeking recognition for their trade union and improvements in wages and working conditions.

1919-09-27 EMMA GOLDMAN is released from a two-year prison term, on September 27, 1919, only to be immediately reimprisoned.

1919-09-28 AFRICAN AMERICAN. Omaha Race Riot of 1919Nebraska.

1919-10-01  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Elaine Race RiotPhillips County, Arkansas. Numerous blacks are convicted by an all-white jury or plead guilty. See 1923 Moore v. Dempsey.

1919-10-11: "EVE ADAMS" AND THE LIBERATOR.  The Liberator is reported to have assigned “Eve Adams” to cover a peace conference in Washington, D.C., the first public report of Eve using her whole new name: “The following press representatives have been assigned to cover the [peace] conference” called by President Wilson in Washington, DC: “Liberator (N. Y.)—Eve Adams”; “Four Editors in Big Conference: Newspaper Men Called to Help Solve Country’s Big Problems,” Fourth Estate, October 11, 1919, 12, via Google Books, [updated link] https://www.google.com/books/edition/Fourth_Estate/XzZJAQAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=%E2%80%9CFour%20Editors%20in%20Big%20Conference%3A%20Newspaper%20Men%20Called%20to%20Help%20Solve%20Country%E2%80%99s%20Big%20Problems%2C%E2%80%9D%20Fourth%20Estate%2C%20October%2011%2C%201919%2C%2012&pg=RA14-PA12&printsec=frontcover. It apparently at this conference that Eve met journalist Macnamee and talked to him about socialism or communism, resulting in his alerting John Edgar Hoover to Eve as a radical of interest. See 1919-11-10. At this conference, Eve probably met conservative journalist Bruce Macnamee who first reported her name to John Edgar Hoover. See 1919-11-10.

1919-10-28   LAW. Congress passed the National Motor Vehicle Theft Act, also known as the Dyer Act. This act authorized the BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION to investigate auto thefts that crossed state lines. Prior to the passage of this act, jurisdictional boundaries between states hampered the ability of law enforcement officials to thwart interstate auto theft rings. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1919-11-07: FIRST PALMER RAIDS. Attorney General Palmer authorized simultaneous raids on the Union of Russian Workers in twenty-three US cities. This first big Red scare raid occurred on November 7, 1919, the second anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. Over ten thousand suspected radicals were arrested, and often “badly beaten by the police,” as happened in New York City.

1919-11-10: INFORMER WRITES TO JOHN EDGAR HOOVER ABOUT EVE 1919, November 10: Bruce Macnamee, Washington, DC, to Hoover re "this Adams woman".  HOOVER RESPONDS 1919, November 10: J. E. Hoover, Washington, DC, re "a Russian Jewess who goes under the name of ADAMS". Source:

1919-12-00: EMMA GOLDMAN AND ALEXANDER BERKMAN, on Ellis Island, awaiting deportation, publish "Deportation: Its Meaning and Menace."

1919-12-00: EVE AND THE LIBERATOR In December 1919, “Eve Zlotchever-Adams” was advertised in The Liberator as taking subscriptions for the magazine: Liberator 2, no. 11 (December 1919): 50, back of front cover, both via Marxists Internet Archive, https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/liberator/. The hyphenated “Eve Zlotchever-Adams” suggests that Eve did not adopt “Eve Adams” as an alias to avoid identification by US officials as a noncitizen radical.

1919-12-21: EMMA GOLDMAN AND ALEXANDER BERKMAN are deported along with numbers of other radical "aliens."

1919-12-27: BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION AGENTS SPEAK ABOUT EVE  1919, December 27: Agent Campbell, BOI, Washington, DC, re “Bolshevik Movement in America - EVA ZLOTCHEVR, traveling under the name of EVA ADAMS"

1920 Unity House lodge, Forest Park, PA PHOTO
A circle dance on the lawn in front of the early Unity House lodge, Forest Park, PA, circa 1920. Note women dancing with women-jnk

1920-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. 53 lynchings of Blacks

1920-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Fritz Pollard and Bobby Marshall are the first two African-American players in the National Football League (NFL). Pollard goes on to become the first African-American coach in the NFL.

1920-00-00  LABOR Alabama Miners' Strike occurred.[29]

1920-00-00  LABOR Clothing Workers' Lockout occurred.[29]

1920-00-00  LABOR; INTERNATIONAL. The ICFTU is founded, later to become the World Confederation of Labour.

1920-00-00  LABOR. Trade Union Educational League founded.[29]

1920-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN. Duluth Lynchings, 1920 MAJOR

1920-01-02 BOI; LABOR.  The U.S. Bureau of Investigation began carrying out the nationwide Palmer Raids.

1920-01-02: U.S. GOVERNMENT; BOI; LABOR SECOND PALMER RAIDS. On January 2, 1920, a second series of Palmer Raids resulted in the arrest of 2,585 alleged radicals in thirty-three US cities. These arrests focused on noncitizen immigrant members of the small, warring Communist Party and Communist Labor Party. On New York’s Ellis Island, arrestees were held in cold, unsanitary, overcrowded cells, and several died. Ellis Island assistant commissioner Byron Uhl, who later signed off on Eve’s fate, insisted that no arrestee would be paroled until all were paroled. New York politicians spoke of building a “ concentration camp” to hold the Reds. Katz, Daring.

1920-01-03: 1920, January 3: Superintendent Weakley, BOI, Cincinnati, OH, re "Bolshevik Movement in America - Eva Zlotchevr traveling under the name of Eva Adams"

1920-01-06: 1920, January 6: Agent Menefee, BOI, Cincinnati, OH, re "EVA ZLOTCHEVR traveling under the name of EVA ADAMS - Bolshevik Movement in America. [in handwriting] Rosa Strunsky"

1920-01-08: 1920, January 8: Agent McLaughlin, BOI, St. Louis, MO, re "Eva Zlotchever traveling under alias Eva Adams"

1920-01-08: 1920, January 8: Chief Burke, BOI, Washington, DC, re "EVA ZLOTCHEVR alias EVA ADAMS"

 1920, January 10: Immigration Inspector Deuber, “STATEMENT OF EVE ZLOTCHEVER ADAMS"

1920-01-12: 1920, January 12: Hogan, Memo for Hoover re "ROSE STRUNSKY Alias EVA ADAMS"

1920-01-12: AGENTS SPEAK ABOUT EVE 1920, January 12: Agent Hopkins, BOI, Los Angeles, “EVA ZLOTCHEVR (traveling under the name Eva Adams): Bolshevik Activities"

1920-01-19: 1920, January 19: Agent Guthrie, BOI, St. Louis, MO, re "EVA ZLOTCHEVR, alias EVA ADAMS - BOLSHEVIK MOVEMENT IN AMERICA"

1920-02-11: 1920, February 11: Acting Assistant Director to Blanford, BOI, San Francisco , re "Eva Adams alias Eva Zlotchevr"

1920-02-11: 1920, February 11: Agent Suter, BOI, re "ADAM alias ZLOTCHEVER Radical"

1920-02-11: 1920: February 11: Acting Assistant Director to Lamb, BOI, NYC, re "Eva Adams alias Eva Zlotchevr"

1920-02-13   AFRICAN AMERICAN. Negro National League (1920–1931) established.

1920-03-18: 1920, March 18: Agent Blanford, BOI, San Francisco, re "EVA ADAMS alias EVA ZLOTCHEVR . . . Radical"

1920-05-19  LABOR  The Battle of Matewan. Despite efforts by police chief (and former miner) Sid Hatfield and Mayor Cabel Testerman to protect miners from interference in their union drive in Matewan, West VirginiaBaldwin-Felts detectives hired by the local mining company arrived to evict miners and their families from the Stone Mountain Mine camp. A gun battle ensued, resulting in the deaths of 7 detectives, Mayor Testerman, and 2 miners. The movie Matewan is based on the event.  Baldwin-Felts detectives assassinated Sid Hatfield 15 months later, sparking off an armed rebellion of 10,000 West Virginia coal miners at the "Battle of Blair Mountain," dubbed the "redneck war" and "the largest insurrection this country has had since the Civil War." Army troops later intervened against the striking mineworkers in West Virginia.[31]

1920-09-29: 1920, September 29: E.M. Blanford, BOI, San Francisco, re "EVA ADAMS alias EVA ZLOTCHEVR . . .Radical"

1920-11-08: The Rev. Dr. Charles T. Bayliss appears in the Bureau of Investigation Office, in San Francisco, to inform on the radical "Eva Adams." The next day the agent in the office describes Bayliss's report. Bayliss was touring the U.S. lecturing on his ultra-right version "Americanism." See: 1920, November 9

1920-11-09: 1920, November 9: Agent Blandford, BOI, San Francisco, re "Eva Adams alias Zlotchevr radical" & Bayliss informer

1920-11-17: 1920. November 17: Agent Kelly, BOI, Butte, MT, re "EVA ADAMS alias EVA ZLOTCHEVR - Radical Activities"

1920-12-06: 1920, December 6: Agent Grotewohl, BOI, Fresno, CA, re "EVA ADAMS Alias EVA ZLOTCHEVR . . . Radical Activities"

1920-12-14: 1920, December 14: Agent Kosterlitzky, BOI, San Francisco, re "EVA ADAMS alias EVA ZLOTCHEVER . . . Radical Activities"

1921-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. 59 lynchings of Blacks

1921-00-00  LABOR; LAW. U.S. Supreme Court rules in Duplex Printing Press vs. Deering that federal courts could enjoin unions for actions in restraint of trade despite the Clayton Act.[29]

1921-00-00  LABOR. Seamen's Strike occurred.[29]

1921-00-00  LABOR. West Virginia Coal Wars continued.[29]

1921-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN. Bessie Coleman becomes the first African American to earn a pilot's license.

1921-00-00: The new Dress and Waistmakers' Joint Board soon began new agreement negotiations with the Dress Manufacturers' Association, and called a general strike on February 9, 1921. https://rmc.library.cornell.edu/EAD/htmldocs/KCL05780-137.html

1921-01-00  (date approximate guess)  Eve arrives in Chicago

1921-01-15: 1921, January 15: Mathew C. Smith, War Dept, to Baley, BOI, Washington, DC, re "Eva Adams alias Eva Zlotchever"

1921-02-01: AD FOR EVE'S SALES SERVICE An ad for Eve’s sales services, probably written by her, in the left-radical journal Good Morning, stressed, “You will know her by her hair.” “Eve Adams is traveling in the West securing subscriptions. . . .” Good Morning (New York, NY), February 1, 1921, p. 19; HathiTrust.org. This left humor periodical was launched in May 1919 by Ellis O. Jones, formerly an associate editor of Lifemagazine and veteran radical cartoonist Art Young.

1921-02-04: LAST AGENT SPEAKS ABOUT EVE: 1921, February 4: Agent Keepers, BOI, Denver, CO, re "EVA ADAMS alias EVA ZLOTCHEVR: Radical Activities". This is the last Bureau of Investigation report on Eve discovered.

1921-03-01: AD FOR EVE'S SALES SERVICE An ad for Eve’s sales services, probably written by her, in the left-radical journal Good Morning, stressed, “You will know her by her hair.” Good Morning, March 1–15, 1921, 18, both via Hathi Trust Digital Library, https:// babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000093613887 and https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/goodmorning/1921/v3n05-mar-1-15-1921-good-morning.pdf

1921-04-00: AD FOR EVE AS RUSSIAN TEACHER Eve advertises herself as a language teacher: “Learn Russian!!” and she is also selling socialist periodical The Liberator: “Miss Eve Adams is traveling for  the Liberator: Liberator  4, no. 4 (April 1921): 32, 34 via Marxists Internet Archive, https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/liberator/.

1921-05-21  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Tulsa Race Riot, Oklahoma

1921-05-23  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Shuffle Along is the first major African-American hit musical on Broadway.

1921-06-15: AD FOR EVE IN GOOD MORNING “EVE ADAMS is traveling in the West securing subscriptions for Good Morning. Please give her yours when she calls upon you.” Good Morning, June 15–July 1, 1921, 14, via Hathi Trust Digital Library, https://babel.hathitrust.org /cgi/pt?id=inu.30000093613887.

1921-07-15: EVE ADAMS is traveling in the West securing subscriptions for Good Morning. Please give her yours when she calls upon you.”. Good Morning, July 15-August 1, 1920, 14, via Hathi Trust Digital Library, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi /pt?id=inu.30000093613887:

1921-08-00: Story about Eve in socialist newspaper: “EVE AdAMS PUTTING IT OVER,” “The Truth, of Duluth, welcomes Eve Adams as follows: Eve Adams, the celebrated hiker, who sets out for a seventy-five mile stroll in the morning and winds up with a swim across the English Channel in the evening, is on the trail of the artists and students and….” Good Morning, August 1921, 18, via Hathi Trust Digital Library, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000093613887.

1921-08-22   BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION.  William J. Burns, the head of a famous private detective agency, became Director of the Bureau of Investigation. Twenty-six year old J. Edgar Hoover was named Assistant Director. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1921-11-00: EVE AND THE LIBERATOR “Accredited Subscription Agents for the LIBERATOR are Miss Eve Adams and Sam Becker.” Liberator, 4, no. 11, (November 1921): back of front cover, both via Marxists Internet Archive, https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/liberator/1921/11/v4n11-w44-nov-1921-liberator.pdf

1922-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. 51 lynchings of Blacks

1922-00-00  LABOR; POLITICS. Conference for Progressive Political Action founded.[29]

1922-04-01 LABOR. UMW General coal strike occurred.[29]

1922-04-01: FIRST AD FOR THE GREY COTTAGE The first ad for The Grey Cottage: a lecture “before the Chicago literati”:  Chicago Tribune, April 1, 1922, 12, via Newspapers.com.

1922-04-15: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Ben Reitman ‘Chairman,’” April 15, 1922, 8, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-04-15: AD FOR GREY COTTAGE, April 15, 1922, 8, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-04-18: GREY COTTAGE PATRON CITED  “Bohemia Queen, Broken Hearted, Takes Poison [after visiting The Grey Cottage],” Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1922, 1, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-05-00: Ad for The Grey Cottage as “Chicago’s Greenwich Village Tea Room” “Eve Adams and Ruth Norlander in Charge”: Liberator 5, no. 5 (May 1922): 34, via Marxists Internet Archive, https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/liberator/.

1922-05-06: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Life, A’La Boheme,” May 6, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-05-13: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Young Chicago Poets” (talk by Samuel Putnam), May 13, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-05-20: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Travels, Trials and Tribulations of a Literary Tramp,” May 20, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-05-27: Ad for Grey Cottage, May 27, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-06-00: Ad for The Grey Cottage as “Chicago’s Greenwich Village Tea Room” “Eve Adams and Ruth Norlander in Charge”: Liberator 5, no. 5 (May 1922): 34, via Marxists Internet Archive, https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/liberator/

1922-06-10: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Vice and Virtue in the Village,” June 10, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-06-17: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Morals Versus Art,” June 17, 1922, 23, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-06-22  LABOR. Herrin massacre:[29] Thirty-six people are killed, 21 of them non-union miners, during a coal-mine strike at Herrin, Illinois.

1922-06-24: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Sensuality in American Fiction” (by
Maxwell Bodenheim), June 24, 1922, 19, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-07-00  LABOR. Great Railroad Strike of 1922.[29]

1922-07-15: Ad for Grey Cottage, “The Romance of the Road,” July 15, 1922, 6, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-07-22: Ad for Grey Cottage, July 22, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-07-29: Ad for Grey Cottage, “The Penalties of Love,” July 29, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-09-01 LABOR; LAW Federal judge James Herbert Wilkerson issues a sweeping injunction against striking, assembling, picketing, and a variety of other union activities, known as the "Daugherty Injunction."

1922-09-05: Ad for Grey Cottage, August 5, 1922, 11, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-09-19: Ad for Grey Cottage, August 19, 1922, 8, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-10-11: Ruth Olson Norlander exhibits two nudes in a “No-Jury Exhibit,” perhaps including one of Eve who posed for Norlander. “The Art Exhibit at Field’s,” Svenska Tribunen-Nyheter, October 11, 1922, trans. Foreign Language Press Survey, via Newberry Library, https://flps.newberry.org/article/5423404_2_1192. Norlander’s name and address are listed in the show’s catalog as 10 E. Chestnut Street, the address of the Grey Cottage. First Annual Exhibition of the Chicago No-Jury Society of Artists (Chicago: No-Jury Society of Artists, 1922), cat. no. 253, 254; Joel Dryer (director, Illinois Historical Art Project), e-mail to JNK, May 4, 2020.
Eve says she posed for Norlander in a letter to her in ???? (see below).

1922-11-17: FIGHT AT GREY COTTAGE  Newspaper report of “free-for-all fight” at The Grey Cottage: “Judge [John J. Richardson] Warns ‘Grey Cottage,’ Frees Proprietress and Patrons, Will Close Place Next Time,” Chicago Daily News, November 17, 1922, 3, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-12-06: GREY COTTAGE CRITIQUE   A columnist refers to The Grey Cottage as “that refuge of thwarted intellect”: “These Philistines Will Talk of Money,” Daily Northwestern, December 6, 1922, 4, via GenealogyBank.com.

1922-12-08: LAST AD FOR GREY COTTAGE  Ad for The Grey Cottage promises “Southern Cooking”. Last ad for The Grey Cottage: Chicago Tribune, December 8, 1922, 23, via Newspapers.com. 

1922-12-20: Sholem Asch's play God of Vengeance opens at The Provincetown Playhouse, 133 MacDougal Street, and runs until April 14, 1923. Source: https://playbill.com/production/the-god-of-vengeance-provincetown-playhouse-vault-0000009894  It moved to The Greenwich Village Theatre, and then in February 1923 to the Apollo Theatre on 42nd Street. Source: https://web.uwm.edu/yiddish-stage/10-things-you-need-to-know-about-god-of-vengeance

1923  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Garrett A. Morgan invented and patented the first automatic three-position traffic light.[48]

1923-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. 29 lynchings of Blacks

1923-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Jean Toomer's novel Cane is published.

1923-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN. In Moore v. Dempsey (1923), the U.S. Supreme Court overturns six convictions for denial of due process under the Fourteenth Amendment.

1923-01-01 AFRICAN AMERICAN. Rosewood massacre: Six African Americans and two whites die in a week of violence when a white woman in Rosewood, Florida, claims she was beaten and raped by a black man.

1923-02-16  AFRICAN AMERICAN. In Moore v. Dempsey, the U.S. Supreme Court holds that mob-dominated trials violate the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

1923-03-04: LAST REFERENCE TO GREY COTTAGE.  Last contemporary reference to The Grey Cottage; columnist writes of those “who foregather at the Grey Cottage”: Penelope Perrill, “Society and ‘Flapper’ Now in Limelight: Present-Day Novelists Seem to Feel Their Themes Must Touch Along Those Lines If Offerings Meet with Public Favor,” Dayton (OH) Daily News, 2nd news section, March 4, 1923, 3, via Newspapers.com.

1923-03-06: The God of Vengeance is found obscene. Urged on by influential members of the Jewish establishment, producer (and noted civil rights attorney) Harry Weinberger and the cast were arrested  March 6th and charged with “unlawfully advertising, giving, presenting, and participating in an obscene, indecent, immoral, and impure drama or play.” They pleaded not guilty. Debates about the play raged in the press, with Constantin StanislavskyEugene O’Neill, Frank Crane, and Jewish Daily Forward editor Abraham Cahan all coming to Asch’s defense. The ACLU refused Weinberger’s request to help finance the appeal, but he won anyway, overturning the verdict after a two-year battle. Source: https://web.uwm.edu/yiddish-stage/10-things-you-need-to-know-about-god-of-vengeance

1923-06-14  LABOR.  San Pedro Maritime strike, California IWW hall was raided. Several children were scalded when the hall was demolished.[32]

1923-09-11: EVE SIGNS CITIZENSHIP APPLICATION IN NYC.  “Declaration of Intention” to become a US citizen signed “Eve Zlotchever,” September 11, 1923, in New York State Supreme Court, Declarations of Intention filed in New York County, 1907–1924, petition vol. 659, petition 45, Division of Old Records, New York County Clerk’s Office.

1924-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN.  Knights of Columbus commissions and publishes The Gift of Black Folk: The Negroes in the Making of America by civil rights activist and NAACP cofounder W. E. B. Du Bois as part of the organization's Racial Contribution Series.

1924-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN.16 lynchings of Blacks

1924-00-00  LABOR. Samuel Gompers died. William Green elected to succeed him as president of the American Federation of Labor.[29]

1924-00-00: ANTI-SEMITISM IN U.S  The National Origins Quota of 1924 and Immigration Act of 1924 largely halted immigration to the U.S. from Eastern Europe and Russia; this was meant to restrict Eastern European Jews among others, as a great many of these immigrants coming from Russia and Eastern Europe were Jews. SOURCE: Wikipedia.

1924-05-10   BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION. Attorney General Harlan Fiske Stone designated J. Edgar Hoover Acting Director of the Bureau of Investigation. By the end of the year, Stone appointed him Director. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline

1924-06-02  LABOR; LAW. Child Labor Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was proposed. Only 28 of the necessary 36 states ever ratified it

1924-07-01   BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION. The Bureau set up an Identification Division after Congress authorized “the exchange of identification records with officers of the cities, counties, and states.” The Bureau established its fingerprint files in Washington, D.C. by consolidating collections from the former Bureau of Criminal Identification at Leavenworth, Kansas and those of the International Association of Chiefs of Police formerly housed in Chicago. https://www.fbi.gov/history/timeline.

1924-09-09  LABOR. 16 Filipino strikers killed during the Hanapepe massacre.[33]

1924-11-00  Eve opens Eve’s Place.

1924-11-00: MR. QUILL'S GUIDE  “Mr. Quill’s Guide” to Village businesses listed “Eve and Ann’s,” at 129 MacDougal Street, as “open evenings,” with “Books, Batik, Art, etc.” Cited in Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056. Thank you Chad Heap for the references.

1924-12-00: “Mr. Quill’s Guide” to Village businesses listed “Eve and Ann’s,” at 129 MacDougal Street, as “open evenings,” with “Books, Batik, Art, etc.” Cited in Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.

1924-12-00: EVE'S AD FOR LIFE DRAWING CLASS   In an ad, “Eve Adams, Director,” urged potential artists to “Study the Human Figure as it is” in a “Life Class” at 64A West Ninth Street, Greenwich Village, Quill 15, no. 16 (December 1924): 32. Robert Edward's drawn map of Greenwich Village dated Dec.  1924 also lists "Eve Ann" on MacDougal Street. 

1925-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Countee Cullen publishes his first collection of poems in Color.

1925-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN.17 lynchings of Blacks

1925-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN.The anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke, is published. The Harlem Renaissance (also known as the New Negro Movement) is named after Locke's book.

1925-00-00  LABOR. Anthracite Coal Strike occurred.[29]

1925-00-00  LABOR. Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters founded.[29]

1925-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN.  American Negro Labor Congress is founded.

1925-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN.  Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters is organized.

1925-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN. Spelman Seminary becomes Spelman College.

1925-01-00: MR. QUILL'S GUIDE.  “Mr. Quill’s Guide” to Village businesses listed “Eve and Ann’s,” at 129 MacDougal Street, as “open evenings,” with “Books, Batik, Art, etc.” Cited in Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.

1925-02-00: EVE PUBLISHES LESBIAN LOVE.  Evelyn Addams (pseudonym of Eve Adams), Lesbian Love (printer and place of publication unknown: Printed for private circulation only, edition of 150 copies, 72 pages, 4 drawn illustrations [February 1925]. Eve testified at her deportation hearing that she published the book in February, 1925. USDLIS #7, April 11, 1927, p. 8 in original document, p. 18 of the whole consecutively numbered document. Yale University Library Catalog at http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/5568728.

1925-02-00: MR. QUILL'S GUIDE.  For the last time “Mr. Quill’s Guide” to Village businesses listed “Eve and Ann’s,” at 129 MacDougal Street, as “open evenings,” with “Books, Batik, Art, etc.” Cited in Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.

1925-03-00: MR. QUILL'S GUIDE.  A listing for "Eve’s Hangout" first appeares from March through June 1925 in Mr. Quill’s Guide. Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.

1925-04-00: A listing for Eve’s Hangout appeared from March through June 1925 in Mr. Quill’s Guide. Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.

1925-04-00: JAY FITZPATRICK INFORMS POLICE ABOUT EVE  About April 1925, Jay Fitzpatrick later swore, he had reported the acts and “undesirability” of “Eve Zlotchever” under her “alias Eve Adams” to Mrs. Mary Hamilton, Chief of Women Police, New York City. [Maybe he meant Mrs. Mary Sullivan who was head if the NY City women police. Check] The police had then opened a file on Eve, Fitzpatrick said, but had not, he said, taken sufficient action. See entry 1925-06-23.

1925-05-00: MR. QUILL'S GUIDE  A listing for Eve’s Hangout appeared from March through June 1925  in Mr. Quill’s Guide.. Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.

1925-06-00: MR. QUILL'S GUIDE.  A listing for Eve’s Hangout appeared from March through June 1925 Mr. Quill’s Guide.. Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056. Thank you Chad Heap for research assistance.

1925-06-01: EVE IN NEW YORK STATE CENSUS.  On the New York State Census, Eve declared herself a “writer”: Zloczewer, Eve [misspelled as Zloczewes] New York State Archives; Albany, New York; State Population Census Schedules, 1925; Election District: 16; Assembly District: 10; City: New York; County: New York; p: 27; Ancestry.com.

1925-06-23:  JAY FITZPATRICK TESTIFIES AGAINST EVE.  Jay Fitzpatrick's Testimony, Ellis Island, NY Fitzpatrick made the trip back and forth from Manhatten to Ellis Island to deliver sworn testimony against Eve, saying he saw her engage in oral sex with women, and suggested that she got paid for sex as a prostitute, rationales for her future deportation. This suggests he was cooperating with federal immigration officials to build a case against Eve, though there is no direct evidence of this.
His testimony includes reference to a letter referring to Eve from “W. W. Husband,” “Commissioner General of Immigration,” “File No. 68309.” I have not found Husband’s actual letter in the files of the US Department of Labor or the US Immigration Service. The alleged date of Husband’s letter, May 26, 1925, is perhaps incorrect. Husband was actually commissioner general of immigration through May 15, 1925, and then served until 1935 as assistant secretary of labor, focusing on immigration.
Fitzpatrick’s testimony is one document in the fifty-nine-page file that constitutes one of the major documents in the Eve Adams archive. This is a file of US government documents associated with Eve’s deportation hearings. A copy of this file was sent to me by the National Archives, Washington, DC, in miscellaneous order. I have ordered this file chronologically, numbered each page consecutively, and divided it into numbered sections to make the retrieval of the chronologically arranged sections and pages easier for future researchers. This file is subsequently cited as USDLIS followed by a number sign indicating a section and then a page number. For example, Fitzpatrick’s testimony is cited as USDLIS #1, 1. Two sections of the fifty-nine-page file—#7 and #11—are themselves paginated. When citing those sections I include the original page number and note the page number of the whole file; see Correspondence Case & Policy Files, 1906–1959, RG85, E9, #55588/556–560, 17W3, box 7300, 18/5/6, Tabbed, Archives File. US National Archives, Washington, DC. [JNK: Check that he actually went to Ellis Island, or did he just send statement.]

1925-07-01: NOTE OVER EVE'S NAME ON LIST OF STEAMSHIP PASSENGERS.  On top of the name “Zlocsewer, Chawe” on list of steamship passengers in 1912 are the handwritten numbers 945/121 and 7/1/25 followed by what looks like two initials of a name, indicating that someone inspected this document on July 1, 1925, probably responding to Eve’s application for a return permit to the United States for her planned trip abroad. See “List or Manifest of Alien Passengers,” SS Vaderland, 1912.

1925-08-08  AFRICAN AMERICAN.35,000 Ku Klux Klan members march in Washington, D.C. (see List of protest marches on Washington, D.C.)

1925-09-25: IMMIGRATION SERVICE ISSUES EVE A VISA.  On September 25, 1925, the US Immigration Service in Washington, DC, issued “Eve Zlotchever” a visa that included “return permit” 74702:  Certificate of Admission of Alien, April 11, 1927, USDLIS #7, 20 (30 of whole file).

1925-10-00 (date approximate): PHOTO OF EVE IN POLAND  Eve Adams photo in Poland with brother Yerachmiel and (probably, sister Tobe), Collection of Eran Zahavy.

1925-11-28: EVE LEAVES POLAND FOR U.S. “Eve Zlotchever” started back to the US after visiting her parents in Poland. She listed her height and weight. List or Manifest of Alien Passengers, SS Minnekahda, sailing from Boulogne-Sur-Mer, November 28, 1925. On the steamship Minnekahda (or Minnehaha) on the Atlantic Transport Line, see “SS Minnehaha Ephemera Collection,” Gjenvick-Gj.nvik Archives, accessed September 24, 2020, see
https://www.gjenvick.com/OceanTravel/ImmigrantShips/Minnehaha.html. US Department of Labor, Immigration Service. List or Manifest of Alien Passengers for the United States Immigration Officer at Port of Arrival, SS  Minnekahda, sailing from Boulogne-Sur-Mer, November 28, 1925, via “Eve Zlotchever,”  New York, Passenger and Crew Lists (including Castle Garden and Ellis Island), 1820–1957, Ancestry.com

1925-12-08:  EVE ARRIVES U.S.  On Dec. 8, 1925 her boat landed. Via Ancestry.com on May 5, 2023:

1926 LABOR. Textile workers fought with police in Passaic, New Jersey. A year-long strike ensued. Passaic, New Jersey, Textile Strike occurred.[29]

1926-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN. Corrigan v Buckley challenges deed restrictions preventing a white seller from selling to a black buyer. The U.S. Supreme Court rules in favor of Buckley, stating that the 14th Amendment does not apply because Washington, DC is a city and not a state, thereby rendering the Due Process Clause inapplicable. Also, that the Due Process Clause does not apply to private agreements.

1926-00-00  AFRICAN AMERICAN.23 lynchings of Blacks

1926-00-00  LABOR. The Railway Labor Act passed. It required employers, for the first time and under penalty of law, to bargain collectively and not to discriminate against their employees for joining a union.[29] It provided also for mediation, voluntary arbitration, fact-finding boards, cooling off periods and adjustment boards.

1926-00-00  LAW; OBSCENITY.  New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, Fifty-Third Annual Report (1926) JNK SEE!!!!  https://www.jstor.org/stable/1114234?read-now=1&seq=5#page_scan_tab_contents

1926-02-26 NY OBSCENITY CONVICTION. On this date, Esar Levine had been sentenced to three months in the workhouse—“a stiff sentence” for the crime at that time, according to a historian of erotica—for publishing and selling Frank Harris’s memoir My Life and [Heterosexual] Loves. Katz, Daring Life.

1926-04-04: EVE CITED AS "HOBOETTE." A columnist cites Eve among the increasing number of “hoboettes,” women who are taking to the road looking for work and adventure: Dorothy Ducas, “Hobohemia Takes to the Road as Tramping Art Reaches Zenith,”  New York Herald Tribune, April 4, 1926, 1926, A5, via ProQuest Historical Newspapers.

1926-05-00  (late May), Margaret Leonard, undercover NYC Police woman goes to Eve's for first time. Eve meets and becomes friends with a nice young lady who comes into the coffee house -- Margaret Leonard. 

1926-06-00: "EVE'S HANGOUT" LISTED. In June 1926, a listing for “Eve’s Hangout” in The Quill described it: “Where ladies prefer each other. Not very healthy for the she-adolescents nor comfortable for he-men.” Quill 18, no. 6 (June 1926): 28. At the same address as Eve’s 129 MacDougal, The Quill listed “Ann” as “Open evenings. Fireplace, Books, Batik, Art, etc. Poetry Reading.”

1926-06-00: early June, Margaret Leonard goes to Eve's for second time

1926-06-11: Margaret Leonard goes to Eve's for third time.

1926-06-12: Eve and Margaret Leonard go on a date to see Broadway show Love ’Em and Leave ’Em.

1926-06-15 HE-MEN READING AT EVE'S. Several he-men participated in a packed poetry reading at Eve’s. An impressionistic account of this raucous event by Harrison set the scene.36It listed seven men participants and one woman, Harrison’s wife. One he-man was poet Eli Siegel, later the founder and chief guru of Aesthetic Realism, a cult claiming that believers could convert from homosexuality to heterosexuality (conversion from hetero to homo was not discussed). Others were bohemian poet Maxwell Bodenheim, a Mr. Beltrome, a Mr. Zam, a Mr. Dave Rosenberg—and the outgoing editor of the Quill, Eve’s nemesis Robert Edwards.

1926-06-17 EVE'S ARREST. Evidence indicates that Eve was arrested on this date and held in prison through her first trial on July 2 and through her second trial on July 7. Margaret Leonard’s sworn testimony suggested that Eve was arrested on June 12, 1926, but all other evidence indicates June 17. USDLIS #7, 12 (22 of whole file). 

The New York City Magistrates Court, 1st District, Minutes, includes two listings.
DEFENDANT: “Eve Adams,”
RESIDENCE: 38 Washington Sq.;
SEX, F[emale];
AGE: 35;
COLOR: W[hite];
NATIVITY: Pol[ish],
NATURE OF COMPLAINT: Dis[orderly Conduct;
OFFICER: Margaret Leonard;
PRECINCT: 13 Div[ision].
DISPOSITION OF CASE: [stamped] Transferred to Special Sessions Docket 1029 [numbers illegible] [Sentenced to] 6 months [on] July 7/27 Macrery J[udge] at [illegible] App[elate] Ct[Court] [numbers illegible]
[SECOND LISTING for “Eve Adams”]
includes the information [illegible numbers] 1000 S.S.
[Special Sessions] [stamped sideways] Committed [stamped] June 22, 1926. 
Thanks to Brian Joseph Ferree for discovering this document in the New York City Municipal Archive.

1926-06-26: VARIETY: "Eve’s Tea Room’ Boss Ran into Policewoman,” 
Variety, June 23, 1926, 35, via Internet Archive

1926-06-29: EVE TRIED AND CONVICTED OF "INDECENT BOOK" in NYC Special Sessions Court, Docket No. 2805, Case No. 7909. Presiding Justices, Nolan, Herbert, Kelly. Eve was held in custody since the date of her arrest. Source: Eve's Probation Report dated on or after 1926, July 2, the date on which she was sentenced for "Indecent Book" (see).

1926-07-00: ROBERT EDWARDS, writing about his “ideal of the Village” included the defensive: “Many times I longed to cast all radicals, Freudians, androgynes, narcissi, etc, into the bottomless pit, but I was no Mussolini nor Savanarola.” Robert Edwards, What I Think of Greenwich Village, Greenwich Village Quill 18, no. 7 (July 1926): 8.

1926-07-02: EVE SENTENCED FOR "INDECENT BOOK" in New York City’s Court of Special Sessions, in the Building for Criminal Courts, on July 2, 1926, before a three-judge panel, Thomas J. Nolan presiding. No transcript was made of the trial because Eve or her supporters would have had to pay for it. Despite Eve’s defense of Lesbian Love, Judge Nolan found her guilty of authoring an “indecent book.” The other two judges in the case were Henry W. Herbert and Joseph D. Kelly.
Eve was then held a prisoner for five more days until her second trial on July 7. People of the State of New York v. Evelyn Addams, July 2, 1926, USDLIS #3, 5. NOTE RE EVE'S DEPORTATION. Nolan then privately requested that the secretary of the New York State Parole Commission, Thomas R. Minnick, ask the commissioner of immigration at Ellis Island, the Honorable Benjamin M. Day, to “take up the matter of deporting” Eve after she had served her prison sentence—THE FIRST OFFICIAL COMMUNICATION to initiate Eve’s deportation hearings.

discovered by Brian Ferree
(as "Evelyn Adams or Addams")
by A. H. Breck. [JNK: RESEARCH Agnes H. Breck].
Date of this report on or after July 2, 1926.
[SECTION A:] [PRINTED] Court [TYPED] Special Sessions" . . . Probation Department"
[SECTION B:] [PRINTED] "Supplementary" (TYPED)
"Defendant Evelyn Adams true name Czlotcheves, . . . ."
[THIRD PARAGRAPH] The defendant denies the last named accusation [that she tried to have sex with Leonard] and declares there is nothing immoral or vile about her book. She says she is a keen observer of humans, can interpret their actions and their motives in five languages; is also something of a cosmopolitan. Her experience has taught her to see people in a humorous light. The contents of the book were a compilation of these experiences.
[JNK: see this about the 17-year-old "boy" and the "elderly man" starting "Six months ago"  (continued on DOCUMENT 4)
"Probation Officer's Investigation"
[includes] "Telegram from Chicago, Ill - Relative to Evelyn Adams, alias Lotchever, she was arrested February and November 1922 charge of keeping disorderly house - no record of deportation. Morgan T. Collins, Chief of Police."  [NOTE: JNK emailed Chicago police archives and asked if they had a file on this. The response was negative. See Katz email.]
"Probation Department"
"Supplenentry Page 2 Evely Adams"
"investigation. During the probation officer's visit to the tea room . . . "
"Probation Officer's Investigation" [nothing]
"Court of Special Sessions Field Blank . . . ."
[Printed] Cause of arrest [Hand written] Lesbian Love
[Printed phrase] "Defendant's Explanation" [of charge of "indecent book"] [Hand written in pencil] Believing telling stories of life as she heard them."
[Printed phrase] "Employed by"[Hand written in pencil] Tea room for self."
[Printed phrase] "Address" [Hand written] 129 McDougal 6 mo.
[Printed phrase] "Employed by" [Hand written] The Big Stick
[Printed phrase] "Address" [Hand written] "E. Bway"
[Printed phrase] "How long" [Hand written] 4 y. [MORE]
[Printed phrase] "Supplementary Facts and Information. Previous Record." [Hand written] Margaret M Leonard 13 Div says that on 6/17/26 within premises 38 Wash Sq Evelyn Addams did willfully & unlawfully ??????  ??? of Sec 1141 of penal law in?? following circumstance. On ??? date dep was invited by def to theatre at 6 PM  On same date def promised to give dep a book which would induce beautiful  thought and a love for def  ??? def said at 8 PM dep ???? alone premises and received from def a book called Lesbian Love by Evelyn Addams. Dep read book given ???? by def and found it contained obscene lewd immoral printed matter."
[Followed by hand written note] Dr. Ben Reitman Health Dep.
[Hand written:] ???? Def was in premises 38 Was Sq. West . . . .  def did forcibly throw dep on a bed did place her hands on dep heart [breasts?] & attempt to commit indecent act.
Educated Poland to 20 y age.
Came to U.S alone. To uncle. Went Wash. Iv. H.S [JNK RESEARCH]
Afternoon of date of ????? def took dep to theatre then ??? to apt then
to dinner. Then to her apt where gave dep copy of
"Lesbian Love" autographed then went to tea room
where dep later telephoned for assistants. Dep saw
def write card to one of little girls in show
inviting her to tea room any evening.
Had plans for theatre.  Gray Goddess Blue
Virgin ??? ??? ???  Depart for ??? to Poland
June 17/25 def[endant] ret[urned] 8/25/
Alex Migdall 10 Wayland St Htf [Hartford, CT]
???? Amusement Park
Publisher of a map & guide of Village The Quill.
Had rep in neighborhood of tea room.
Had old Russian man visiting her on
previous residence.
[LATER under "Name and Relation"]
Bechie Shem 656 E 12 [Occupation] 3 ??? ?? [JNK RESEARCH]
Court of Special Sessions
Page 1
[Printed] Court Report
[Printed] Prisoner's Name "Evelyn Addams"
[Printed] Charge "Indecent Book"
[Printed] Date of Arrest "June 17th, 1926 10 P.M.  [JNK: NOTE TIME]
[Printed] General Information "On information received, went to Deft's tea room
129 MacDougal [sic] Street, on the four visit Deft invited Policewoman
Margaret M. Leonard, 13th Div., to show, then had dinner.
At dinner, she promised to give policewoman a copy of
Lesbian Love, that she had written, if she would accompany
Deft to her room. Miss Leonard went to Deft room, after being in
room a few minutes she gave Miss Leonard the book, then took
it back to autograph the book. Also made an attempt to commit
a indecent ?????  the Policewoman --
See Mrs ????? Mag. Court, 1st District
Departed from Chicago under a different name.
Supposed to have been owner of the Gray Goddess &
The Blue Virgin in Chicago, Ill. Deft a follower
of Emma Goldman -- who formerly resided at 38
Washington Square West.
See Mr. Plaus Prob. Officer. Also see
Mr. J. J. Dyer --
Copy of adv in The Quill issue of June 1926.
Eve's Hangout 129 McDougal St Where ladies prefer each other.
Not very healthy for she adolescents nor comfortable for he men.
"Police Department"
[EVE'S BLUE CARD] Eve Adams  Fred Agley [JNK: RESEARCH]
Eve's [written in]
A Rendezvous Tea Room
where British, Canadians, Australians Meet
in the Village
See Brian Ferree's research on Agley. It sure sounds like him.
[white paper and hand written] [JNK NOTE DATE]
?/6 Boy 17 ranaway to [JNK: try to see date clearly]
129 McDougal St  Mother
demanded boy return fight --
???? mother went to D.C.
Investigation [?] Prob[ation] Of[ficer] Plaus
??????? by ??? CPK.
??? ??? ????? Ref.
[Hand written] Chas S Summer [Charles S. Summer was the director of the Society-- was he directly involved here?]
Soc Sup. Vice [Society for the Suppression of Vice]
215 W 22
Nat 2454
1926 Jul 1
[TO] Agnes Breck Probation Officer
Court General Sessions New York, NY.
Relative Evelyn Adams Alias Lotcher
She was arrested February and November 1922 charge keeping disorderly house
No record of deportation.
[signed] Morgan T. Collins Chief Police
Copy Jay Fitzpatrick letter of June 23, 1925

1926-07-03: NEW YORK TIMES: “Sentenced for Giving Book: Tea Room Owner Gets Indeterminate Term for Distributing Work,” New York Times, July 3, 1926.

1926-07-06 EVE IMPRISONED. On July 6, Eve was admitted to prison on Ellis Island to start her one-year term as prisoner 684 for publishing her “indecent book.”

1926-07-06: U.S. IMMIGRATION SERVICE.  A document prepared by a US Immigration Service official on July 6, 1926, records the facts of Eve’s return to the US from her trip to Poland in 1925.  See: 1926, July 6: Certificate of Admission of Alien on December 8, 1925

1926-07-07 EVE'S SECOND ("DISORDERLY CONDUCT") TRIAL. Eve is escorted out of prison temporarily to be tried for “disorderly conduct”—her alleged attempted sex with policewoman Margaret Leonard, the chief witness against her. Katz, Daring Life. Judge Andrew Macrery presided over Eve’s second trial in New York City’s Magistrate’s Court, and again, no transcript of this trial was made. “City Magistrate’s Court, 1st Manhattan District: Eve Adams . . . Charged with: Disorderly Conduct. Officer: Margaret Leonard, 13th Division. Disposition, Workhouse, 6 months. Date, July 7, 1926. Magistrate, [Andrew] Macrery,” October 7, 1926, USDLIS #3, 3, 6.

1926-07-07: VARIETY: "EVELYN ADDAMS"  “Evelyn Addams, 1 Yr and Deportation: Boss of Eve’s in Village Sold ‘Dirty’ Book—Man-Hater Besides,” Variety, July 7, 1926, 33, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety83-1926-07.

1926-07-08: MILWAUKEE, WI, JOURNAL RE EVE  “Greenwich Village Eve Gets 6 Months More,” Journal  (Milwaukee, WI), July 8, 1926, via GenealogyBank.com.

1926-07-09: “Six Months More for Woman,” New York Times, July 9, 1926.

1926-07-17: “Seller of Obscene Books [sic] Given 6 Months,” Tablet (Brooklyn, NY), July 17, 1926, 1, via GenealogyBank.com.

1926-07-21: VARIETY.  “Eve’s Tea Room has had a cop” standing by since her arrest: “Cop Detailed in Vil ‘Joints’ Ruin Business,” Variety, July 21, 1926, 46, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety83-1926-07/page/n31/mode/2up.

1926-07-28: VARIETY: "RICH CULTISTS"  “Addams’ Ring of Rich Cultists: Investigation into Surrounding Circumstances and Companions in Village,” Variety, July 28, 1926, 37, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety83-1926-07/page /n31/mode/2up.

1926-07-31: RUTH NORLANDER AND ALBERT C. BARNES  Ruth Olson Norlander wrote a postcard from Glenwood, Minnesota, to the Barnes Foundation asking to obtain back numbers of a publication. Norland wrote at least three other times to Barnes, in 1926, 1932, 1937, and 1947. Norlander dropped by Barnes’s house, and he let her in to see his art collection: Scans via Amanda McKnight (associate archivist and librarian, Barnes Foundation), e-mails to JNK, June 13, 2017.

1926-09-00: PETER PATER: “Eve’s place is gone”: Peter Pater, Village News and Local Color, Greenwich Village Quill, September 1926, 57.

1926-09-00: ROBERT EDWARDS imagined “none but the emasculate” man as a customer in Eve’s old hangout. “A Letter from Robert Edwards,” Greenwich Village Quill 19, no. 2 (August 1926): 43.

1926-10-00: CHIEF WOMEN POLICE MARY SULLIVAN. The fullest description of Eve’s arrest was published by the head of New York City’s policewomen: Mrs. Mary Sullivan (director of policewomen, NewYork City), “The Tea Room Case,” IAWP Bulletin, October 1926, 5–6, via NYPL Periodicals & Microforms, call no. *ZAN-10352. Thank you Brian Joseph Ferree for discovering this document.

1926-10-04: MINNICK TO COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION  Thomas R. Minnick, head of the New York State Parole Commission, wrote to the commissioner of immigration, Ellis Island, the Honorable Benjamin M. Day. Minnick reported that Judge Nolan, who had found Eve guilty of publishing an “indecent book,” had asked Minnick to ask Day “to take up the matter of deporting” Eve — the first official communication to initiate Eve’s deportation hearings, an act of casual collusion between the judge and the parole commission head. Minnick told Day that he had requested his own office to contact the Immigration Service “with the view of deporting her.”  Eve’s “indecent book” was punishable according to law by a minimum of ten days in jail and a maximum of one year—the actual prison time to be decided by members of Minnick’s Parole Commission. His group obligingly found that Eve’s foul crime deserved the maximum one year. This unusually harsh penalty for the “indecency” crime was purposeful. Eve received the especially harsh sentence for a reason: the Immigration Act of 1917 provided for the deportation of any alien sentenced to “one year or more” for a crime of “moral turpitude” committed within five years of entering the United States. Because Eve had left and returned to the States in 1925, immigration officials claimed that her one-year sentence for publishing an “indecent book” constituted “moral turpitude” and grounds for deportation. If Minnick’s Parole Commission had not given Eve the maximum sentence, her deportation would not have been possible—the authorities had begun to plot her exile before the Parole Commission’s sentence was handed down. The moral turpitude did not reside with Eve but with Minnick, Judge Nolan, Commissioner Day, and the other officials (almost all men) who conspired against her. See: Thomas R. Minnick to Benjamin M. Day, October 4, 1926, USDLIS #12, 42, attached to 1927, June 3: Thomas J. Conry to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, NY, USDLIS #12, 41.

1926-10-07: DEPORTATION. The case for Eve’s deportation was first outlined in a letter from  Inspector L. V[incent] F. Jankovski, Ellis Island, to Commissioner of Immigration Henry H. Curran, October 7, 1926, USDLIS #3, 3–4. Jankovski informs his boss that the Parole Commission has sentenced Eve to a minimum jail time of one year. His report also contains incorrect allegations about Eve from a Chicago probation officer. He also reports Fitzpatrick’s sensational claims about seeing Eve having oral sex with women, acts he calls forms of prostitution. He recommends the incarcerated Eve’s “arrest,” a formal term for initiating her deportation hearings. That Jankovski was himself an immigrant makes his advocating for Eve’s deportation especially ironic. See: 1926-10-07: V. F. Jankovski to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis  Island, NY.

1926-10-11: EVE'S DEPORTATION. The second call for Eve’s deportation hearings was made by Brown, Inspector in Charge, Law Division, US Department of Labor, Immigration Service. He recommends the incarcerated Eve’s “arrest,” a formal term for initiating her deportation hearings. See: W. W. Brown to Secretary of Labor, Washington, DC.  

1926-10-16: EVE'S DEPORTATION. Assistant Secretary of Labor William Walter Husband, the US Department of Labor’s expert on immigration, Washington, DC, initiates Eve’s deportation hearings. W[illiam] W[alter] Husband (second assistant secretary of labor, US Department of Labor, Immigration Service), call for hearings, October 16, 1926, Correspondence Case & Policy Files, 1906–1959, RG85, E9, #55588/556–560, 17W3, box 7300, 18/5/6, Tabbed, Archives File. US National Archives, Washington, DC. See: 1926, October 16: W. W. Husband to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island. 

1926-11-24: EVE'S FIRST DEPORTATION HEARING   Eve’s first deportation hearing concludes with her asking for her lawyer to be present. “Record Of Hearing In Case Of Chawa (Eve} Zlotchever . . ,” November 24, 1926, USDLIS #7, 1–2 (11–12 of whole file). See: 1926, November 24: Record of Hearing in the Case of Chawa (Eve) Zlotchever 

1926-11-30: EVE'S SECOND DEPORTATION HEARING   Eve’s second deportation hearing. Record of Hearing in the Case of Chawa (Eve) Zlotchever, November 30, 1926, USDLIS #7, 8 (18 of the whole file).

1927 LABOR. LEFT. Ferdinando Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were executed.[29]

1927-00-00  LAW; OBSCENITY. New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, Fifty-Fourth Annual Report (1927). JNK SEE!!!! https://www.jstor.org/stable/1114234?read-now=1&seq=5#page_scan_tab_contents

1927-00-00 AFRICAN AMERICAN.16 lynchings of Blacks

1927-00-00: INDEX CARD with “NAME: ZLOTCZEWER, EVE, 55588/560 BORN: 35 in 1927 Poland [in handwriting: Z 432] BOX 2587 Acc 60-A-600,” apparently from the National Archives, Washington, DC, sent to Jonathan Ned Katz by Barbara Kahn.

1927-02-06: GREY COTTAGE REFERENCE   A passing reference to The Grey Cottage appears in Harland Rohn, "Breezes from the Lake," Chicago Daily Tribune, p. F2. [Source?]

1927-02-10: EVE'S THIRD DEPORTATION HEARING   Eve’s third deportation hearing. Record of Hearing in the Case of Chawa (Eve) Zlotchever.  Policewman Margaret Leonard testifies about Eve’s alleged attempted sex. February 10, 1927, USDLIS #7, 11–19 (21–29 of whole file).

1927-02-24: EVE'S FINGERPRINTS   Photo of the fingerprints of "Eve Adams" appear with the typed inscription "Copied 2-24-27": NPD Photo #8785, NYPD [New York Police Department] Photo Unit Collection, New York City Municipal Archives. Thanks to Elizabeth Evens for discovering this photo.

1927-04-11: SUMMARY DEPORTATION HEARINGS  Summing up the results of Eve’s hearings, Immigration Inspector Thomas J. Conry recommended “the alien’s deportation”: Record of Hearing in the Case of Chawa (Eve) Zlotchever. Thomas J. Conry, “Summary,” February 11, 1927, USDLIS #7, 20–21 (30–31 of whole file).

1927-04-12: Byron Uhl, First Assistant Commissioner, US Immigration Service, labeled Eve a “High Deportable;” April 12, 1927, USDLIS, #8, 32. See: Byron H. Uhl to Com.-Gen. Immig., Washington, DC.

1927-04-21: Howard Allen, the “Acting Chairman, Secretary & Commissioner Generals Board of Review,” recommends that Eve’s deportation hearing be reopened “for the purpose of securing, if practicable, copy of information or indictment upon which the alien was convicted and a statement from the proper officials showing the length of the sentence which was finally fixed by the Parole Commission of the State of New York, and for incorporating these documents into the record, and that the alien be given a chance to inspect the record. See: 1927, April 21: Howard Allen, Actg. Chair, Board of Review.

1927-04-25: George J. Harris, Acting Commissioner-General to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, New York Harbor, writing to the commissioner of immigration, Ellis Island on April 25, 1927, recommended that Eve’s case be reopened: USDLIS #10. See: 1927, April 25: George J. Harris to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, NY 

1927-05-23: EVE'S FOURTH DEPORTATION HEARING   Eve’s fourth deportation hearing was held on May 23, 1927, without her lawyer present. The hearing that would decide Eve’s future proceeded without her counsel present—due process be damned. Conry later claimed that Eve’s lawyer had asked for that particular hearing date—suggesting that he was to blame for not appearing. His guilt apparently extended to Eve. USDLIS #11, 1–4 (37–40 of whole file) and 1927-06-03: Conry later claimed: T. J. Conry to commissioner of immigration, Ellis Island, June 3, 1927, UDLIS #12, 41. See: 1927, May 23: Hearing 4: Reopened Hearing in the Case of Chawa (Eve) Zlotchever

1927-06-03: Conry claims that Eve’s lawyer had asked for the date of her fourth hearing—suggesting that Eve's lawyer was to blame for not appearing. His guilt apparently extended to Eve. T. J. Conry to commissioner of immigration, Ellis Island, June 3, 1927, UDLIS #12, 41. See: 1927, June 3: Thomas J. Conry to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, NY

1927-06-07: On June 7, Byron Uhl sent the record of Eve’s last hearing to the commissioner general of immigration in Washington, DC; USDLIS #13, 43. See: 1927, June 7: Byron H. Uhl to Com. Gen. of Immig., Washington, DC

1927-06-13: EVE'S LAWYER ASKS FOR PROBATION  Harold L. Turk, Eve’s senior lawyer, wrote to the commissioner-general of immigration, Washington, DC, on June 13, 1927, asking that Eve receive “probation for a year” 1927, June 13: Harold L. Turk to Commiss. Gen. of Immig,, Washington, DC: USDLIS #16, 47. See response 1927-06-22.

1927-06-14: Howard Allen, acting chairman of the Immigration Service’s Board of Review, “recommended that the alien” Eve be deported; 1927, June 14: Howard Allen, Acting Chairman, Board of Review. USDLIS #9, 35.

1927-06-17: W. N Smelser, Assistant to the Secretary of Labor, Department of Labor, Washington, DC, wrote to the Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, June 17, 1927, certifying that Eve “may be deported. 1927, June 17: W. N. Smelser, Ass. to Sec. Labor, to Com. Immig., Ellis Island, NY. US Immigration Service File on Eve Adams, #16, page 49.

1927-06-22: Harry E. Hull, Commissioner-General of Immigration, Washington, D.C., wrote to Eve’s lawyers Turk and Eilperin, replying to their letter of June 13, 1927, saying that Eve’s case “was very carefully considered” and that “The alien’s removal from the United States will be effected as soon as possible after she is released from prison. . . .” 1927, June 22: Harry E. Hull, Com.-Gen. Immig. to Turk & Eilperin, Brooklyn, NY. US Immigration Service file on Eve Adams, Katz #14, page 45 of whole file.

1927-11-21 LABOR. Picketing coal miners marching under the banner of the Industrial Workers of the World were massacred in the Columbine Mine massacre in the company town of Serene, Colorado.

1927-11-26: EVE"S LAWYER ASKS FOR DELAY OF DEPORTATION   On November 26, as Eve’s prison term was ending, her lawyers begged the commissioner-general of immigration to delay her deportation.  1927, November 26: Turk & Eilperin to Com. Immig, Wash., DC. US Immigration Service file on Eve Adams, # 17, p. 49.

1927-12-00: NY SOCIETY FOR SUPPRESSION OF VICE  The logbook of “Record of Persons Arrested on Complaint of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice During the Year 1926[-1927], written after December 1927 records Eve's arrest, listing:
ALIASES: “Evelyn Addams, 129 MacDougal Street”;
NATIONALITY: “Polish,” “S[ingle],”
OCCUPATION: “Tea room,”
WARRANT ISSUED BY: “No Warrant, 1st District,”
OFFENSE: “Dis[orderly] Conduct”/ “Obscene Book ‘Lesbian Love’,” BAILED/AMOUNT: $1000 June 18 McAndrews/[$]1500 to 22 McCrery g.a.c. [illegible];
[COURT?]: SS; CASE TRIED OR ADJOURNED: [illegible]/to 29 trial /guilty [illegible];
OFFICER BY WHOM ARRESTED: “Polw [Policewoman] Leonard & Others;”
INVENTORY OF STOCK SEIZED: “12 books mss. [manuscripts] etc.”; SENTENCE-FINE/IMPRISONMENT: “One Dis.[orderly] Cond[uct] chrg [charge] / [illegible] 6 mos [months] in / workhouse / S.S. Ind [Indeterminate] sentence”;
REMARKS: Homosexual assaulted / Polw [Policewoman] in indecent manner / Deported Dec 1927.” Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., Container 4, “Eve Kotchever,” microfilmed.

1927-12-03: Howard Allen, Acting Chairman, Secretary, and Commissioner General’s Board of Review responded to Eve’s lawyers on December 3, 1927: “No adequate grounds for such exceptional consideration are given.” He recommended immediate deportation: 1927, December 3: Howard Allen to Com. Immig., Ellis Island. USDLIS #17, 49.

1927-12-07: EVE IS DEPORTED  Eve was deported. An Ellis Island clerk wrote: a “Warrant for Deportation of Zlotczewer, Chawa Eva, Alias Adams Evelyn, Port of New York, Executed December 7, 1927, SS  Polonia,” 1927, December 7: Warrant Deportation, Zlotczewer, Chawa Eva; USDLIS #22, 58.

1927-12-07: Harold E. Hull answered Congressman Thomas H. Cullen’s phoned request that Eve be considered for probation, responding that Eve’s stay of deportation was denied: 1927, December 7: Harry E. Hull to Congressman Thomas H. Cullen. Harold E. Hull to Turk & Eilperin, December 7, 1927: USDLIS #19 49a.

1927-12-07: JACK KENNY  A lighthearted account of Eve’s deportation appeared in the New York Daily News: Jack Kenny, “Modern Eve Adams Driven from Eden,” Daily News (New York, NY), December 7, 1927, main (“Pink”) ed., 4, via Newspapers. com. A slightly smaller, slightly different version of this story appears as ibid., other (“Extra”) ed., 16, via Newspapers.com.

1927-12-07: On the day of Eve’s deportation, J. Friedman, US Department of Labor, Bureau of Immigration, Warrant Division, Washington, DC, wrote a memo to George J. Harris, Assistant Commissioner-General, US Department of Labor, Bureau of Immigration, Washington, DC, saying the copy of Eve’s book, Lesbian Love, that had been in an envelope attached to Eve’s file had disappeared. Harrison responded the same day that Lesbian Love was in the envelope when Eve’s file was on his desk on the evening of December 6. He instructed Friedman to make a search for Lesbian Love since “it appears to be an important exhibit.” 1927, December 7: J. Friedman for Mr. Harris; & Harris memo; US Immigration Service file on Eve Adams, #19, pages 56-57 of whole file.

1927-12-08: NEW YORK DAILY NEWS  “The morals of this 35-year-old” were not up to US standards, declared a tongue-in-cheek report of Eve’s deportation: “Eve Adams Uses One-Way Ticket,” Daily News (New York, NY), December 8, 1927, 16, via Newspapers.com.

1927-12-12: A few days after Eve’s deportation, a final document in her file affirmed that she had been deported; 1927, December 12: Byron H. Uhl, to Com.-Gen. Immigration., Washington, DC; USDLIS #23, 59.

1928-00-00 – 1932-00-00: HENRY MILLERBetween 1928 and 1932, Henry Miller worked on his early autobiographical novel Lovely Lesbians (later titled Crazy Cock). The original title perhaps referenced Eve’s Lesbian Love, which Miller is likely to have first heard about after Eve’s arrest and trial. See Mary V. Dearborn, introduction to Crazy Cock by Henry Miller (New York: Grove Press, 1991), xix–xxi, xxv.

1928-00-00 NY OBSCENITY LAWS A legal scholar who analyzed the enforcement of New York obscenity laws in 1928 concluded, “Few types of books are considered sufficiently harmful to be tabooed.” Lesbian Love was considered sufficiently harmful.

1928-01-07: MAY ENGLISH TO BEN REITMAN RE EVE  Reporting on Eve’s prison term in the U.S., a fellow prisoner wrote: “They led her a hell of a life”: May English to Ben L. Reitman, January 7, 1928, 9–11, University of Illinois at Chicago Library. May English also told Reitman that she “met a girl who knew Eve Adams in Chicago” who said that Eve, perhaps referring to her jail term, “had but very few friends, and they were what we would call the ‘scum.’” It’s hard to judge the words of this eccentric witness.

1928-11-00  LAW; OBSCENITY.  The Enforcement of Laws against Obscenity in New York.  Columbia Law Review, Nov., 1928, Vol. 28, No. 7 (Nov., 1928), pp. 950-957. Anonymous.

1928-11-27: EVE'S POLISH PASSPORT   As “Zloczower, Chawa,” and “Eve Chawa Zloczower,” Eve signed a Polish passport that includes her photo; she later gave the outdated passport to Hella Olstein’s brother Georges or André. On this passport Eve declares her occupation, in French, as “Writer - Woman of letters.” The earliest date on this passport, November 27, 1928 may be incorrect. The document includes numbers of other dates. Daniel Olstein Collection.  Check all the dates on this passport, on all it's surfaces. Eve to Olstein Family 1.

1929-02-06: THEATER; VARIETY: "QUEER SHOW QUITS"  Variety headlined a front-page story "Queer Show Quits Before Cops Cop It." A play, Modernity, a “dramatization of ‘Lesbian Love’” by “‘Jane Adams’” had been closed “on a tip off that the cops were ready to step in.” Variety reminded its readers that “Jane Adams,” the author of Lesbian Love, had been convicted as a “disseminator of obscene literature” and had been deported after serving a term on Welfare Island two years earlier. See: “Queer Show [Modernity] Quits Before Cops Cop It,” Variety, February 6, 1929, 1, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety94-1929-02/mode/2up.Variety  I’ve discovered no additional information about the intriguing play Modernity or the “Scientific Players” who put it on at the Play Mart theater on Christopher Street, in Greenwich Village; the New York Public Library’s Theatre Division contains no references to the either. “a new sex play”: “Police Prevent Play,” Daily Times (Chicago, IL), September 21, 1929, 20, via GenealogyBank.com. In 1930, Variety reported that the Play Mart Players were vacating the Play Mart, which was “being demolished and replaced with [a] modern apartment house.” The company was planning to move its productions to MacDougal Alley, and open in July with  The Clothes Line Revue; “Open-Air Backyard Drama in the Village,” Variety, June 11, 1930, 1, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety99-1930-06 /mode/2up. I uncovered no further information, at the NYPL’s Theatre Division or elsewhere, on the Play Mart Players, the Play Mart venue on Christopher Street, or the Play Mart producer Harold Paine. Future research might look for more information about Paine and a possible link between the aforementioned Scientific Players and Eve’s actor friend Watson White, referenced later.

1929-02-15: EVE'S 1st LETTER TO REITMAN  Eve Adams wrote a first letter to Ben Reitman, February 15, 1929, series 3, box 9, folder 151, Reitman Papers, University of Illinois, Chicago, Libary. This letter is six pages long and signed “Eve Adams” with return address "WP (Mrs.) M. Zloczewer, Mława. Poland, Działdowska 19."

1930-00-00 (date uncertain): REITMAN RE EVE.  Ben Reitman wrote about “Eve” using a short-line prose form; Outcast Narratives, n.d., #61, box 1, folder 15, Ben Lewis Reitman Papers, University of Illinois at Chicago Library (hereafter Reitman Papers).

1930-12-12: EVE'S 2nd LETTER TO REITMAN   Eve Adams wrote a second letter to Ben Reitman, December 12, 1930, scan and typed copy included by Martha Reis in the set of “Transcripts” of Eve’s letters in the archive of the University of Illinois at Chicago Library that Reis sent to Eran Zahavy and that Zahavy shared with me. Though the transcript lists the original letter as in the Reitman Papers, researcher Marie K. Rowley was unable to find it there. Reis, “Hidden Histories” also lists this as in the Reitman Papers, box 9, folder 151, but this locator is now invalid after a library reorganization.

1931-06-05: EVE TO RUTH NORLANDER   “Eve Zloczower,” Mirmande, Drôme, France, wrote the only known letter to Ruth Olson, June 5 [or 6], 1931, return address “Eve Zloczower,” American Express, Paris, France.  Yale University, Beineke Library. Request Box GROUP 3206, GROUP 3206, F-1, 1 item (2 p.). Accession: 42629.

1931-08-00: EVE'S "THE WORKHOUSE IS RAIDED"   “The Workhouse is Raided, Prison Sketch by Eve Adams” was listed as forthcoming in the New Review, August–October 1931. As a writer in Paris, Eve was still using her American name, a sign of her appreciation for the freedom she had experienced in her adopted country and her continuing belief in the ideals the United States had promised, then torpedoed.

1931-10-10: BILLY SCULLY ON EVE. Columnist Billy Scully, recalled Eve Adams as “one of the most delightful” Greenwich Village characters: Billy Scully, “Village on Parade,” Greenwich Village Weekly News, October 10, 1931, p. 8, cited in Chauncey, Gay New York, 242. 1931-10-10: On Eve, Chauncey also sites Greenwich Village Weekly News, October 17, p. 1 & 8; October 28, p. 10; November 21, p. 4. Microform at NYPL Research Division.

1931-11-16: Broadway Brevities ON EVE: "SAPPHIC SISTERS"
Eve and her arrest are recalled in an imaginative rendition: “Sapphic Sisters Scram! Depression Drives Ladies of Lesbos to Normalcy Deserting Boat Boys for Jobs and Feminine Frills; Village and Beeway Camps Left Lonely as Rich Dames Vanish, Only Old Guard Carries On”: Broadway Brevities 3, no. 3 (November 16, 1931): 10 via New York Public Library.

1931-11-21: PARKER TYLER  “Eve’s name and fame probably also inspired the working title of Parker Tyler’s novel-in-progress “called something like ‘Eve’s Adam,’” according to a 1931 column in a Greenwich Village paper: Greenwich Village Weekly News, November 21, 1931, cited in Chauncey, Gay New York, 242. Greenwich Village weekly news [microform]. Text New York. 19292 Items Format         Call Number Item Location Text *ZAN-G175 Apr. 1929-Oct. 1933 (inc.) Schwarzman Building - Milstein Division Room 121

1932-00-00: NAZI PARTY IN GERMANY receives 38% of votes, becoming the largest poilitical party in the country. Newsome, Pink Triangle.

1932-08-07 BERKMAN DIARY ON EVE. Alexander Berkman’s diary mentions an "Eve" in Saint Tropez, France. The finding aide of the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, lists Berkman’s correspondents as including Eva in 1931, and Eve in 1934. See:https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/ARCH00040/ArchiveContentList.

1933-00-00: HELLA OLSTEIN applies for a Swiss passport. But a neighbor denounces her "bohemian life" and her application is denied. Source: Olstein Family.

1933-00-00: REITMAN ON EVE AS "OLGA" Ben Reitman wrote about Eve as Olga, a “charming young Russian girl”: Ben Lewis Reitman, Papers, University of Illinois, Chicago, Library, Writings - "Living with Social Outcasts," pages 7-9, 1933, Box 3, folder 50: which includes “Homosexuality (To Be Added to Part IV),” a section that includes “Olga” [Eve Adams], p. 7, and “Bernice” [Ruth Olson Norlander], pp. 7-8.

1933-01-03: BALD ON EVE AND "LESBIAN LOVE".  American columnist Wambly Bald, writing in The Chicago Tribune (published in Paris, France, despite its name), described Eve affectionately and praised her courage for writing Lesbian Love, the only public praise documented during Eve’s lifetime. Le Vie de Boheme (As Lived on the Left Bank), Chicago Tribune and the Daily News, New York  (Paris), January 3, 1933, 4, via Gallica, https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k47768609/f2.item.r.

1933-01-30 Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany.

1933-02-28: American gossip columnist Wambly Bald, writing in The Chicago Tribune (published in Paris, France, despite its name), reported under the title “Riviera Bulletins,” “George Antheil, Ella Ward, and Frances Shanahan threw a big party for Gwen Harrison, Eve Adams and the rest of the cognosenti of Cagnes.” Wambly Bald, “Le Vie de Boheme (As Lived on the Left Bank), Chicago Tribune and the Daily News, New York  (Paris), February 28, 1933, p. ? via Gallica Antheil's memoir, Bad Boy of Music discusses his time in Cagnes, France, pp. 250-270, but he does not mention Eve or any of the others mentioned above. See his book at archive.org  His papers at NYPL music library seem only to contain music.

1933-03-22: IN GERMANY, the Nazis open the Dachau concentration camp

1933-04-01. IN GERMANY, a one-day Nazi boycott of Jewish shops and businesses.

1933-04-07: IN GERMANY, laws for the Reestablishment of the Civil Service bar Jews from holding civil service, university, and state positions.

1933-04-26: IN GERMANY, the Gestapo, the secret police, is established.

1933-07-01: EVE MEETS HELLA OLSTEIN   Thanks to “fate” Eve, told Ben Reitman, she and Hella Olstein had “found each other” on July 1, 1933, the day Hella had arrived in Paris with twenty francs, “and we are the most devoted of friends.” Eve added that Hella, her “adopted child, a grown woman of 28” who looked 19, had been ill during most of the winter “and we had hard times, and a bit of a struggle to make ends meet, but everything is fine—now.” Eve did not explicitly say that she was referring to Hella. But Hella Olstein, born on March 5, 1905, was twenty-nine when Eve wrote Reitman on August 15, 1934. Eve’s “dearest,” “beloved” and “beautiful” spelled out her own attraction.
 “Hella Soldner,” Central Database of Shoah Victims’ Names, Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, Jerusalem, 
https://yvng.yadvashem.org/nameDetails.html?itemId=1682354. This “page of testimony” under her later married name of Hella Olstein Soldner, was submitted by her brother Georges Olstein on November 26, 1998, lists her birth date as March 5, 1905, identifies her as a sangerin  (singer), and gives a probable death date of August 1944.

1933-07-14: IN GERMANY Nazi laws strips East European Jewish immigrants of German citizenship.

1934-00-00: THE NAZIS IN GERMANY kill at least eighty-five people, including openly gay leader of the SA Ernst Röhm, during The Night of the Long Knives. Newsome, Pink Triangle.

1934-04-10: Advertisement for Hella Olstein singing as"Nora Waren" mentioned in Der Republikaner: Mülhauser Volkszeitung: Sozialistisches Organ für den Ober-Rhein Sozialistischen Partei. Hella Olstein is also sometimes listed in French papers as singing using the first name "Norah".

1934-04-18: EVE TO ALEXANDER BERKMAN  Eve, in Paris, wrote to Alexander Berkman: “Well to do English friends of mine Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Grinell-Milne, author of 6 novels are looking for a villa in the South. I heard from a friend here that E. G. [Emma Goldman] wants to rent her cottage at St-Tropez for month. I am getting them interested – They are rich people and both charming good friends. . . . They have the most gorgeous town house and I am trying to convince them that they will like the place in spite that there is no bathroom. What is the news? I am getting by – My friend is visiting her father in Basel Switzerland. She will be back the end of the month. How are you and Emmy? I am so anxious to hear from you.” Grinell-Milne may be the unidentified man with an unidentified woman in a photo of Eve and Hella Olstein that may have been taken in St. Tropez (see photos from the Daniel Olstein Collection in Katz, The Daring Life and Dangerous times of Eve Adams to be added to OutHistory). Alexander Berkman Papers, International Institute of Social History. The Worlds Leading Institute in Socio-Economic History. 66, Correspondence by first name, “Eve. 1934” [three pages, letter 15-16 in file https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/ARCH00040/ArchiveContentList]

1934-07-02: EVE SIGNS POLISH PASSPORT  Eve signs a Polish passport on July 2, 1934, and it includes her photo: passport, Daniel Olstein Collection.

1934-08-02: HITLER PROCLAIMS HIMSELF Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Reich Chancellor). Armed forces must now swear allegiance to him

1934-08-15: EVE'S 3rd LETTER TO REITMAN   Eve wrote her third letter to Ben Reitman, August 15, 1934; included by Martha Reis in a set of “Transcripts” of Eve’s letters in the archive of the University of Illinois at Chicago Library that Reis sent to Eran Zahavy and that Zahavy shared with me. Reis included a transcript of this letter and said it was “Typed” and that the return address was American Express, Paris. According to Reis, “Hidden Histories,” 97n128 and 98n133, this letter is found in accession no. 98-36, box 2, folder 18, Reitman Papers. But researcher Marie K. Rowley was unable to find the original of this letter or two others from Eve to Reitman transcribed by Reis of Eve to Reitman in the UIC collection, and the library was unable to provide those letters’ locations after the archive was reorganized sometime after Reis completed her research.

1934-08-24: EVE TO YERACHMIEL ZAHAVY  Eve wrote a postcard to her brother in Palestine: Eve Adams, postcard to Yerachmiel Zahavy, August 24, 1934, Eran Zahavy Collection, trans. Naomi Cohen.

1934-08-25: REITMAN RE EVE  Ben Reitman informed a mutual acquaintance that Eve Adams has sent him “a very fine glimpse” of women migrants in Paris: Ben Reitman to Ena Douglas, August 25, 1934, series 3, box 23, folder 274, Reitman Papers. The whereabouts of this document are unknown.

1934-08-27: REITMAN TO EVE.  Ben Reitman wrote to Eve his one known letter: Ben Reitman to Eve Adams, August 27, 1933 [sic, actually 1934], “Eva Adams” file, Reitman Papers. I concur with the careful researcher Martha Reis, who points out that Reitman misdated the year of this letter and that it was actually written in 1934 (Reis, “Hidden Histories,” 97n131). Reitman’s reference to Eve’s “delightful long letter of the fifteenth” must refer to her 1934 missive, which is the only one she sent to him dated August 15. In Reitman’s letter he also says “I understand that Emma’s going to get another vise [visa] and will come to America soon for 3 months. She is still in Toronto, Canada.” Emma Goldman was indeed in Toronto waiting on a visa in August 1934. Candace Falk et al., eds., “Chronology (1920–1940),” Emma Goldman: A Guide to Her Life and Documentary Sources, Emma Goldman Papers, accessed October 9, 2020,  https://www.lib.berkeley.edu/goldman/pdfs/EG-AGuideToHerLife _Chronology1920-1940.pdf, 28–30. See also “Emma Goldman Extended Timeline,” Libcom, https://libcom.org/history/emma-goldman-extended-timeline.

1934-09-00: EVE: PHOTO, PARIS   Eve had her photo taken in Paris, September 1934: “Chava Zloczewer, a Jewish Woman from Mława” (photograph), France, September 1934, via Ghetto Fighters’ House Archive, https://www.infocenters.co.il/gfh/notebook_ext.asp?book=91378. This photo was sent to the Ghetto Fighters’ House in 1972 by Eve’s brother Yerachmiel Zahavy in Tel Aviv.

1934-11-28: REITMAN RECALLS EVE  Ben Reitman reportedly recalled that Eve had visited Chicago’s Dill Pickle Club, the Chicago hangout for bohemians, anarchists, radical labor agitators, and assorted dissenters founded by Jack Jones, a former organizer for the IWW: Gail Borden, “Ahead of the Times,”  Chicago Daily Times, November 28, 1934, 12, in supp. 2, folder 62, Reitman Papers, cited in Reis, “Hidden Histories,” 96n125; the cited location may no longer be accurate. What does Reitman say about Eve?

1934-12-01: BUTCH ANDERSON ON EVE. Gossip columnist Butch Anderson reported on December 1, 1934, in the Paris Tribune, that “Eve Adams is neglecting the book trade and making eyes at a new blonde”: Butch Anderson, “Through Montparnasse with Gun and Camera,” Paris Tribune: Europe’s American Weekly, December 1, 1934, via Gallica, https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k4773362g/f4.item.

1934-12-08 HENRY MILLER TO ANAIS NIN re sales of Tropic of Cancer in Paris: "Eve Adams still selling a few now and then." Nin, Anais, and Henry Miller. A Literate Passion : Letters of Anais Nin & Henry Miller, 1932-1953 (First edition: Mariner Books, Boston, 1989), p. 248

1934-12-30: CHARLES ESTCOURT ON EVE. Eve was listed in a newspaper column along with Ernest Hemmingway and James Farrell as among “American art’s advance guard”: Charles Estcourt Jr. “Intelligentsia Desert Paris and Flock Back to New York,” Los Angeles Times, December 30, 1934, 35, via Newspapers.com. Estcourt’s column was syndicated to multiple newspapers, and his article mentioning Eve also appeared, for instance, in the Dayton (OH) Daily News, the Indianola (MS) Enterprise, and the Atlanta (GA) Constitution (per Newspapers.com).

1934-12-31: REITMAN TO GOLDMAN RE EVE  Ben Reitman wrote to Emma Goldman that Eve Adams had sent him “a splendid article” on women migrants in Paris: Ben Reitman to Emma Goldman, December 21, 1934, Emma Goldman Archive, cited in Reis, “Hidden Histories,” 96n122. The whereabouts of Eve's article are unknown.

1935-00-00: IN GERMANY, creation of Central Office for Combating Homosexuality and Abortion. Newsom, Triangle Legacies.

1935-06-00 (Summer; date approximate) EVE IN ST. TROPEZ WITH HELLA  Eve wrote to Ben Reitman that, despite “always problems and worries” (Eve’s and Hella’s struggle to make a living), she and Hella Olstein spent a month in St. Tropez in the summer of 1935. They probably visited Emma Goldman who was living in a cottage there.  See Eve to Reitman, February 20, 1936.

1935-06-00: IN GERMANY, Nazi jurists amend Paragraph 175, giving themselves unprecedented legal authority to prosecute gay men.

1935-09-15: IN GERMANY "Nuremberg Laws": anti-Jewish racial laws enacted; Jews no longer considered German citizens; Jews cannot marry Aryans; Jews cannot  fly the German flag

1936-02-30: EVE'S 4th LETTER TO REITMAN   Eve wrote her fourth letter to Ben Reitman. Eve Adams to Ben Reitman, February 20, 1936, series 3, box 10, folder 274, Reitman Papers. The three-page letter was written on Le Dome stationery with a return address of 6 Place Bienvenue, Paris 15e. Ben Reitman Papers, Archives, University of Illinois, Chicago.

1936-03-07: GERMAN NAZIS  march into the Rhineland, previously demilitarized by the Versailles

1937-00-00:  THEATER.  Pins and Needles (1937) is a musical review with a book by Arthur Arent, Mark Blitzsteim, Emmanuel Eisenberg, Charles Friedman, David Gregory, Joseph Schrank, Arnold B. Horwitt, John Latouche, and Harold Rome and music and lyrics by Rome. The title Pins and Needles was created by Max Danish, long-time editor of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU)'s newspaper Justice. It ran on Broadway from 1937 to 1940.  The International Ladies Garment Workers Union used the Princess Theatre in NYC  as a meeting hall. The union sponsored an inexpensive revue with ILGWU workers as the cast and two pianos. Because of their factory jobs, participants could rehearse only at night and on weekends, and initial performances were presented only on Friday and Saturday nights.[4][5] The original cast was made up of cutters, basters, and sewing machine operators.[6]  Pins and Needles looked at current events from a pro-union standpoint. It was a "lighthearted look at young workers in a changing society in the middle of America's most politically engaged city."[5] Skits spoofed everything from Fascist European dictators to bigots in the Daughters of the American Revolution society. Word-of-mouth was so enthusiastically positive that the cast abandoned their day jobs; the production expanded to a full performance schedule of eight shows per week. New songs and skits were introduced every few months to keep the show topical.

1937-00-00: REITMAN RECALLS EVE  Ben Reitman recalled in 1937 that Eve had been an attendee at the “popular” parties held on Christopher Street: Ben L. Reitman, Sister of the Road: The Autobiography of Box-Car Bertha (Edinburgh: Nabat/AK Press, 2002; original published 1937), 100–102.

1937-02-03: Advertisement, "Nora Waren" [Hella Olstein] mentioned in Der Republikaner: Mülhauser Volkszeitung: Sozialistisches Organ für den Ober-Rhein Sozialistischen Partei.

1937-02-25 "Nora Waren" [Hella Olstein] cited in French newspaper: GOOGLE TRANSLATION: "Nora Waren, sang the day before yesterday in the Hoche room, songs by Marguerite Monnot and Gosseline, among others Mon Legionnaire and La Rue." SOURCE: L'Intrasigeant, p. 8.

1938-00-00: CHIEF WOMEN POLICE  MARY SULLIVAN RECALLS EVE'S ARREST  The head of women police in New York City recalls Eve’s arrest in a memoir: Mary Sullivan, My Double Life: The Story of a New York Policewoman (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1938).

1938-02-04: "Nora Waren" in Le Populaire: journal-revue hebdomadaire de propagande socialiste et internationaliste ["puis" socialiste-internationaliste]. Parti socialiste SFIO (France). Fédération (Paris), p. 7.

1938-02-05: "Nora Waren" in Le Populaire: journal-revue hebdomadaire de propagande socialiste et internationaliste ["puis" socialiste-internationaliste]. Parti socialiste SFIO (France). Fédération (Paris), p. 7. 

1938-02-22: "Norah Waren and M. Debaudry in Le Petit Haut-Marnais : républicain quotidien ["puis" Le Spectateur de Langres, Le Réveil de Saint-Dizier], p. 5 "12:45, Au micro: Norah Waren et M. Debaundry, via Gallica.bnf.fr. Tags: radio

1938-02-25: "Norah Waren" and M. Debaudry in Radio-liberté: bulletin de l'Association d'auditeurs de TSF "RADIO-LIBERTÉ", Association d'auditeurs de T.S.F.. Auteur du texte, p. 8, via Gallica.bnf.fr. Tags: radio

1938-02-27: "Norah Waren"  in L'Est républicain: quotidien régional., p. 8. via Gallica.bnf.fr. Tags: M. Debaudry; radio

1938-02-27: "Norah Waren"  in La Dépêche de Brest: journal politique et maritime ["puis" journal de l'Union républicaine "puis" journal républicain quotidien "puis" quotidien républicain du matin].... Union républicaine (France). Auteur du texte, p. 7, via Gallica.bnf.fr. Tags: M. Debaudry; radio

1938-02-27: "Norah Waren" in Choisir: vivre c'est choisir / directeur: Joseph Reymond, p. 8, via Gallica.bnf.fr. Tags: M. Debaudry; radio

1938-02-27: "Norah Waren" in Courrier de Saône-et-Loire27 février 1938 (a. 108, n° 32244), p. 5. 

1938-02-27: "Norah Waren" in Le Petit Journal, Parti social français. Auteur du textem 27 février 1938 (n° 27436), p. 4, via Gallica.bnf.fr. Tags: Debaudry, radio. 

1938-02-27: "Norah Waren" in Le Petit Troyen: journal démocratique régional ["puis" journal quotidien de la démocratie de l'Est "puis" grand quotidien de la Champagne], p. 7, via Gallica.bnf.fr. 

1938-03-13: GERMAN NAZIS ACCOMPLISH THE Anschluss (the incorporation of Austria): all antisemitic decrees immediately applied in Austria.

1938-03-21  EVE AND HELLA IN ST. TROPEZ. Hella Olstein, in St. Tropez with Eve for at least fourteen days, wrote a postcard in German to her father, Jacques Olstein, in Basel, Switzerland. Eve added a brief greeting and signed herself “Eve.” Address: Café de Paris, St. Tropez, France. Daniel Olstein Collection. Daniel Olstein to JNK, email May 3, 2020, 2:03 PM. Daniel Olstein sent a scan of the above card as part of 20200429144737538.pdf  Hella Olstein Correspondence with her family 1.

1938-06-24: "Nora Warren" on Radio marocaine. Organe hebdomadaire marocain de radiodiffusion.... , p. NP via Gallica.bnf.fr. Tags: music-hall with Maurice Roget, Marcel Veran, and Norah Waren; radio

1938-07-14: "Norah Waren" in Excelsior14 juillet 1938 (a. 29, n° 10072), p. 5. via Gallica.bnf.fr. 

1938-07-14: "Norah Waren" in L'Ouest-Éclair (Rennes), 14 juillet 1938 (n° 15221), p. 10, and 12. via Gallica.bnf.fr.

1938-07-14: "Norah Waren" in La Dépêche (Toulouse),14 juillet 1938 (a. 69, n° 25511), p. 3. via Gallica.bnf.fr.

1938-07-14: "Norah Waren" in Le Progrès de la Côte-d'Or, 14 juillet 1938 (a. 70, n° 195), p. 5. via Gallica.bnf.fr.

1938-07-15: "Norah Waren" in L'Intransigeant, 15 juillet 1938 (n° 51402), p. 7. via Gallica.bnf.fr.

1938-09-30: MUNICH CONFERENCE: Great Britain and France agree to German occupation of the Sudetenland, previously western Czechoslovakia

1938-10-05: SWISS AUTHORITIES ask Germans to mark all Jewish passports with a large letter "J" to restrict Jews from immigrating to Switzerland. JNK: NOTE RE HELLA

1938-10-11: La Dépêche (Toulouse), 11 octobre 1938 (a. 69, n° 25599), p. 4."Norah Waren"

1938-10-12: La Dépêche (Toulouse). 12 octobre 1938 (a. 69, n° 25600), p. 6. "Norah Waren"

1938-10-13: La Dépêche (Toulouse). 13 octobre 1938 (a. 69, n° 25601), p. 6. "Norah Waren"

1938-10-28: IN GERMANY, 17,000 Polish Jews living in the country are expelled; Poles refuse to admit them; 8,000 are stranded in the frontier village of Zbaszyn.

1938-11-05: HENRY MILLER ON EVE  Henry Miller wrote from Paris, on November 5, 1938, to novelist Lawrence Durrell: “Eve Adams is just beginning to sell my water colors!! I might earn a little dough in this most pleasant way. Ho ho! What a joke!”Eve sold Miller’s watercolors for 50 francs each (about $1.45 in 1938, $27 today). Ian S. MacNiven, ed., The Durrell-Miller Letters: 1935–1980 (New York: New Directions Publishing, 1988), 107.

1938-11-09: IN GERMANY, the Nazi's perpetrate Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass): anti-Jewish pogrom in Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland; 200 synagogues destroyed; 7,500 Jewish shops looted; 30,000 male Jews sent to concentration camps (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen)

1938-12-05: "Nora Waren" mentioned in Le Populaire: journal-revue hebdomadaire de propagande socialiste et internationaliste ["puis" socialiste-internationaliste]. Parti socialiste SFIO (France). Fédération (Paris), p. 7. Via https://rapportgallica.bnf.fr/recherche?query=(gallica+adj+%22Nora+Waren%22)&lang=en&suggest=0&aig=2&mb=5&collapsing=true

1938-12-07: "Nora Waren" mentioned in Le Populaire: journal-revue hebdomadaire de propagande socialiste et internationaliste ["puis" socialiste-internationaliste]. Parti socialiste SFIO (France). Fédération (Paris), p. 7. Via https://rapportgallica.bnf.fr/recherche?query=(gallica+adj+%22Nora+Waren%22)&lang=en&suggest=0&aig=2&mb=5&collapsing=true

1938-12-08: "Nora Waren" mentioned in Le Populaire: journal-revue hebdomadaire de propagande socialiste et internationaliste ["puis" socialiste-internationaliste]. Parti socialiste SFIO (France). Fédération (Paris), p. 7. Via https://rapportgallica.bnf.fr/recherche?query=(gallica+adj+%22Nora+Waren%22)&lang=en&suggest=0&aig=2&mb=5&collapsing=true

1938-12-09: "Nora Waren" mentioned in Le Populaire: journal-revue hebdomadaire de propagande socialiste et internationaliste ["puis" socialiste-internationaliste]. Parti socialiste SFIO (France). Fédération (Paris), p. 7. Via https://rapportgallica.bnf.fr/recherche?query=(gallica+adj+%22Nora+Waren%22)&lang=en&suggest=0&aig=2&mb=5&collapsing=true

1938-12-10: "Nora Waren" mentioned in Le Populaire: journal-revue hebdomadaire de propagande socialiste et internationaliste ["puis" socialiste-internationaliste]. Parti socialiste SFIO (France). Fédération (Paris), p. 7. Via https://rapportgallica.bnf.fr/recherche?query=(gallica+adj+%22Nora+Waren%22)&lang=en&suggest=0&aig=2&mb=5&collapsing=true

1938-12-15: "Nora Waren" mentioned in Le Populaire: journal-revue hebdomadaire de propagande socialiste et internationaliste, published by the Parti socialiste (Paris), reports: "13' SECTION, Samedi 17 décembre à 20 h. 30, grande fete annuelle placée sous la présidence de Julien Taillard, conseiller municipal de Paris et avec le concours de Nora Waren, du Petit Casino, Deschamps, de Bobino, Nirep's, ventriloque, Susie et Oswald, de l'Européen, Carmen Silva et Jacques Esnault, du Théâtre Antoine, dans un sketch « Une vilaine femme brune ». A minuit, bal de nuit avec l'excellent orchestre du bal des Pleurs. Sept billets de tombola donnent droit i l'entrée du concert et du bal. Prendre des billets tous les soirs de 18 à 19 h. au siège, i, rue des Cinq-Diamants." GOOGLE TRANSLATION
13' SECTION, Saturday, December 17 at 8 p.m. 30, the big annual party under the presidency of Julien Taillard, municipal councilor of Paris and with the help of Nora Waren, of the Petit Casino, Deschamps, of Bobino, Nirep's, ventriloquist, Susie and Oswald, of the European, Carmen Silva and Jacques Esnault, from the Antoine Theater, in a sketch “A nasty brunette woman”. At midnight, the night ball with the excellent orchestra of the ball of tears. Seven raffle tickets entitle you to entry to the concert and the ball. Take tickets every evening from 6 to 7 p.m. at the head office, i, rue des 
Cinq-Diamants .o français. SOURCE: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k823254s.texte.langEN 

1938-12-16: "Nora Waren" in Le Populaire: journal-revue hebdomadaire de propagande socialiste et internationaliste, published by the Parti socialiste (Paris), reports: "13' SECTION, Samedi 17 décembre à 20 h. 30, grande fete annuelle placée sous la présidence de Julien Taillard, conseiller municipal de Paris et avec le concours de Nora Waren, du Petit Casino, Deschamps, de Bobino, Nirep's, ventriloque, Susie et Oswald, de l'Européen, Carmen Silva et Jacques Esnault, du Théâtre Antoine, dans un sketch « Une vilaine femme brune ». A minuit, bal de nuit avec l'excellent orchestre du bal des Pleurs. Sept billets de tombola donnent droit i l'entrée du concert et du bal. Prendre des billets tous les soirs de 18 à 19 h. au siège, i, rue des Cinq-Diamants." GOOGLE TRANSLATION
13' SECTION, Saturday, December 17 at 8 p.m. 30, the big annual party under the presidency of Julien Taillard, municipal councilor of Paris and with the help of Nora Waren, of the Petit Casino, Deschamps, of Bobino, Nirep's, ventriloquist, Susie and Oswald, of the European, Carmen Silva and Jacques Esnault, from the Antoine Theater, in a sketch “A nasty brunette woman”. At midnight, the night ball with the excellent orchestra of the ball of tears. Seven raffle tickets entitle you to entry to the concert and the ball. Take tickets every evening from 6 to 7 p.m. at the head office, i, rue des 
Cinq-Diamants .o français.
SOURCE: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k823254s.texte.langEN 

1938-12-17: "Nora Waren" in Le Populaire: journal-revue hebdomadaire de propagande socialiste et internationaliste, published by the Parti socialiste (Paris), reports: "13' SECTION, Samedi 17 décembre à 20 h. 30, grande fete annuelle placée sous la présidence de Julien Taillard, conseiller municipal de Paris et avec le concours de Nora Waren, du Petit Casino, Deschamps, de Bobino, Nirep's, ventriloque, Susie et Oswald, de l'Européen, Carmen Silva et Jacques Esnault, du Théâtre Antoine, dans un sketch « Une vilaine femme brune ». A minuit, bal de nuit avec l'excellent orchestre du bal des Pleurs. Sept billets de tombola donnent droit i l'entrée du concert et du bal. Prendre des billets tous les soirs de 18 à 19 h. au siège, i, rue des Cinq-Diamants."  GOOGLE TRANSLATION  13' SECTION, Saturday, December 17 at 8 p.m. 30, the big annual party under the presidency of Julien Taillard, municipal councilor of Paris and with the help of Nora Waren, of the Petit Casino, Deschamps, of Bobino, Nirep's, ventriloquist, Susie and Oswald, of the European, Carmen Silva and Jacques Esnault, from the Antoine Theater, in a sketch “A nasty brunette woman”. At midnight, the night ball with the excellent orchestra of the ball of tears. Seven raffle tickets entitle you to entry to the concert and the ball. Take tickets every evening from 6 to 7 p.m. at the head office, i, rue des Cinq-Diamants .o français. SOURCE: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k823254s.texte.langEN 

1939--01-30:  HITLER SPEECH IN Reichstag: "if war erupts it will mean the Vernichtung (extermination) of European Jews".

1939-03-12: Le Populaire (1916-1970) 12 mars 1939 (n° 5868), p. 7."Norah Waren"

1939-03-13: Le Populaire (1916-1970) 13 mars 1939 (n° 5869), p. 7."Norah Waren"

1939-03-15: GERMAN NAZIS OCCUPY Czechoslovakia.

1939-03-15: Le Populaire (1916-1970) 15 mars 1939 (n° 5871), p. 7."Norah Waren"

1939-04-07: Le Populaire (1916-1970), 7 avril 1939 (n° 5894), p. 7. "Norah Waren"

1939-06-00 – 1939-08-00 (Summer): HENRY MILLER PAINTING TO GEORGES OLSTEIN. One of Henry Miller’s paintings was given to the poor young architect trainee Georges Olstein, brother of Eve’s friend Hella when he visited his sister and Eve in France in the summer of 1939. Daniel Olstein to Jonathan Ned Katz, Zoom interview; painting, Daniel Olstein Collection.

1939-07-16: ANAIS NIN ON EVE.  In Saint-Tropez, on July 16, 1939, novelist and memoirist Anaïs Nin reported meeting Eve and Hella Olstein. Nin had just received the first copy of her second novel, Winter of Artifice. “Eve Adams saw me riding by. I showed her the book. We talked about [Henry] Miller. We arranged I would give her some copies to sell, that we would meet at the cafe. one late afternoon.” Anaïs Nin, Nearer the Moon from “A Journal of Love”: The Unexpurgated Diary of Anaïs Nin, 1937–1939, vol. 4 (New York: Harcourt, 1996), 375.

1939-08-23: SOVIET-GERMAN Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact signed: non-aggression pact between Soviet Union and Germany.

1939-09-01: GERMANY INVADES POLAND. Beginning of World War II.


1940-00-00 (no month or day.): OLSTEIN, HELLA, POSTCARD AS NORA WAREN.  Hella Olstein as Nora Waren, Postcard, Groupement de Artiste Professionnels de la Côte d'Azur. Included the photo that Georges Olstein sent in 1998 (see) to the Memorial de la Shoah, Paris. Daniel Olstein Collection.  Hella Olstein Correspondence with her family 2

1940-05-29: Belgium surrendered to the German Army. 

1940-06-14: Nazis occupy Paris.

1940-06-15: EVE IN BIARITZ TO YERACHMIEL ZAHAVY.  Eve wrote a hurried postcard from Biarritz, in southwestern France, on June 15, 1940, responding in English to a letter from her brother Yerachmiel. Eve was in motion: she had received her brother’s letter in Nice, she’d lived in Cannes for six weeks, in Biarritz for ten days, and she didn’t know how long she’d stay there. Eve did not mention it, but she was traveling with Hella. Letter, Eran Zahavy Collection.

1940-06-22: French officials signed an armistice with Nazi Germany. France was divided into a northern, German-ruled zone, and a southern, French-ruled zone. Marshal Philippe Pétain headed the French government based in the town of Vichy.

1940-06-24: Pétain’s officials signed an armistice with Italy’s Fascist leaders. Italian Fascists occupied a small zone in southeastern France in which Nice was the largest city, with Cannes sixteen miles away.

1940-07-21: OLSTEIN, HELLA, TO ANDRE OLSTEIN.  On July 21, 1940, Hella Olstein wrote in French to her brother André, a young lawyer, in Switzerland. Her singing work in Cannes had ceased suddenly, one day, when her bosses took the train west for Bordeaux. So she and Eve had also left. People were “packed like sardines” on the train,” Olstein said, “even people in the toilets and standing the whole night.” Having stopped in Biarritz, then in Toulouse, and not finding permanent rooms, they had retreated back to Nice. Eve added a note to André in English, her words guarded: André’s letter had calmed Hella’s anxiety. Daniel Olstein Collection. The letter was sent from 58 rue de France, Nice, France. Hella Olstein Correspondence 3.

1940-08-01: SOLDNER, HELLA OLSTEIN, TO ANDRE OLSTEIN.  Hella Olstein wrote to her brother André, the first letter in which she signed herself “H. Soldner” (her new, married last name), from 58 rue de France, Nice, the same address she shared with Eve. Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence 4.

1940-08-25: SOLDNER, HELLA OLSTEIN, TO ANDRE OLSTEIN.  Hella Olstein wrote to her brother André, and Hella signed herself with her new married name: “Mme [Mrs.] Hella Soldner,” at 58 rue de France, the apartment Hella shared with Eve, Nice. Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence 5.

1940-09-13: SOLDNER, HELLA OLSTEIN, TO ANDRE OLSTEIN.  On September 13, Hella Olstein Soldner’s postcard to her brother André included a note from Eve thanking him for his “help”—apparently, money he had sent—which allowed them to enjoy a restaurant lunch and toast to his health. Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence 6.

1940-10-03: French officials passed their first law excluding Jewish citizens from jobs in public service.28 On their own initiative, they also passed a law allowing the immediate arrest of foreign Jews.


1941-05-23: SOLDNER, HELLA OLSTEIN, TO FAMILY.  Hella Olstein Soldner wrote a letter in French to "Mes bien chers" (her father and brothers) from Brasserie de la Potinière, Chamonix-Mont Blanc, A Folliguet, Proprietor, in Southeastern France, and Eve included a three-word note to the family, May 23, 1941. Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence 7.

1941-05-29: SOLDNER, HELLA OLSTEIN, TO ????? [JNK CHECK]  Hella Olstein Soldner wrote in French from the Hotel du Brévent, Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, Haute-Savoie, in Southeastern France, near the border with Switzerland. Mentions Madame Agnes Piret. Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence 8.

1941-08-04: EVE TO ANDRE OLSTEIN.  A “very worried” Eve wrote to Hella Ollstein’s brother, André, asking if he had heard from his sister. In this missive, sent from 58 rue de France, Nice, France, Eve wrote that she had left Hella Olstein a week before in Haute-Savoie, and had received no word from her in eight days: Eve Adams, postcard toAndré Olstein, August 4, 1941, Daniel Olstein Collection.

1941-08-13: EVE TO ANDRE OLSTEIN.  Eve wrote a postcard to André Olstein on August 13, 1941, saying that she had heard from Hella. Daniel Olstein Collection. See below. Check date.

1941-08-19: French police arrested Jews, sending them to a camp in Drancy, a Paris suburb, before their deportation to concentration camps.

1941-09-01: EVE'S 5th LETTER TO REITMAN   Eve wrote a four-page letter to Ben Reitman imploring him to secure her permission to reenter the US and to help raise the funds to pay her fare. Eve mentions in passing that Hella has married. Ben Reitman Papers, University of Illinois, Chicago, Library. Transcription by Martha Reis. This four-page letter was sent from 58 rue de France, Nice, France. Watson White was mentioned by Eve as a rich friend who could help pay the fare for Eve’s trip back to the U.S. Eve Adams to Ben Reitman, September 1, 1941, series 3, box 10, folder 171, Reitman Papers, University of Illinois, Chicago, Library.

1941-09-13: EVE TO ANDRE OLSTEIN. Eve wrote to André Olstein that she had heard from his sister Hella about whom she, worried, had written him earlier. Daniel Olstein Collection.  OR WAS THIS 1941-9-13? See above. JNK CHECK

1941-09-18: REITMAN TO HARRY KELLY.  Ben Reitman wrote to Harry Kelly, anarchist educator, that he “Had a letter from Eve Adams”: Ben Reitman to Harry Kelly, September 18, 1941, series 3, box 10, folder 171, Reitman Papers, University of Illinois, Chicago, Library.

1941-09-30: SWISS IMMIGRATION TO HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDNER.  Swiss immigration officials wrote Hella Olstein Soldner that she had been denied entry into Switzerland where her father and two brothers resided. They relayed a letter dated one day earlier on September 29. Bureau Suisse de Passeports, Annemasse, to Hella Olstein, September 30, 1941, Daniel Olstein Collection.

1941-10-00: The Nazis began construction of a second concentration camp in the Auschwitz complex, Auschwitz-Birkenau. The new camp contained a killing center to facilitate the Nazis’ plan to exterminate all of Europe’s Jews. Zyklon B gas was to be the means of mass murder in all the gas chambers in the Auschwitz complex

1941-10-31: EVE'S 6th CORRESPONDENCE TO REITMAN (A POSTCARD)  Eve addressed a postcard, to Ben Reitman, her sixth correspondence with him: “let us hope dear Ben” that he would be able to secure her return to the US, and funds to pay her fare: Eve Adams, postcard to Ben Lewis Reitman, October 31, 1941, series 3, box 10, folder 172, Reitman Papers. The letter was again sent from 58 rue de France, Nice, France.

1941-11-03: SOLDNER, HELLA OLSTEIN, IN NICE, TO FAMILY.  Hella Olstein Soldner, in Nice, wrote in German to her family in Switzerland that she had been denied permission to join them; Hella Olstein to her family, November 3, 1941, Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence 9.


1942-01-20: Nazi officials gathered in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to implement what they privately called the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question,” the mass murder of all Europe’s Jews.

1942-02-08: Hella Olstein Soldner addressed a postcard to her father Jacques Olstein and Eve added a note. Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence 10.

1942-03-13: SNYDER RECALLS GREY COTTAGE.  George H. Snyder recalled to Ben Reitman “some very pleasant recollections” over discussions presided over by Reitman at The Grey Cottage in Chicago: George H. Snyder to Ben Reitman, March 13, 1942, supp. 2, folder 80, Reitman Papers, cited in Martha Lynn Reis, “Hidden Histories: Ben Reitman and the ‘Outcast’ Women Behind Sister of the Road: The Autobiography of Box-Car Bertha,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, September 2000, 96n126; the cited location may no longer be accurate.

1942-03-27: In Paris, the French police helped the Nazis arrest Jews.

1942-05-22: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE. Le Petit Provençal. 22 mai 1942 (A67, N23795), p. 2. "Norah Waren" (Advertisement for Hella Olstein singing.)

1942-05-23: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE.  Le Petit Provençal, 23 mai 1942 (A67, N23796), p. 2. "Norah Waren" On  OutHist

1942-05-26: EVE TO ANDRE OLSTEIN.  Eve addressed a letter in stilted German to “Honorable Mr. André” asking for two magazines, but apparently asking for money or two forged Swiss passports: (English translation): “Honorable Mr. André, would you be so kind (if it is possible) to find for me two samples of the journal ‘Swiss Illustré No 6’ and to send it to my place. I need this journal and will be grateful for that. I hope you are all doing fine. Best wishes also to your father and Georges. Eve Adams to André Olstein, May 26, 1942 [sent May 27], Daniel Olstein Collection.

1942-05-29: FRENCH JEWISH RELIEF ORGANIZATION RE "ZLOCZOWER"A French Jewish relief organization included reimbursement of 29 francs on May 29, 1942, to “MM ZLOCZOWER et WEISS,” almost certainly Eve and another woman; Board of Directors of the General Union of Israelites of France in the South Zone, report, October 15, 1942, 16, via Centre de Documentation, Memorial de la Shoah, administrative document CDX-9, http://bdi.memorialdelashoah.org/internet/jsp/core/MmsRedirector.jsp?id=1264031&type=NOTICE.

1942-06-00: Rumors began to spread in France: Jews were being deported to camps and murdered.

1942-06-00: SOLDER, HELLA OLSTEIN, TO ANDRE OLSTEIN  In June 1942, Hella wrote in German to her brother André, and Eve added a note in German thanking André. Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence 11.

1942-06-05: In Paris, the French police helped Nazis arrest Jews.

1942-06-06: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE Le Sémaphore de Marseille. 6 juin 1942 (A115, N35106), p. 4."Norah Waren"

1942-06-07: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE Le Sémaphore de Marseille. 7 juin 1942 (A115, N35107), p. 2."Norah Waren"

1942-06-09: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE Le Sémaphore de Marseille, 9 juin 1942 (A115, N35108), p. 2."Norah Waren"

1942-06-10: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE Le Sémaphore de Marseille, 10 juin 1942 (A115, N35109), p. 2."Norah Waren"

1942-06-11: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE Le Sémaphore de Marseille, 11 juin 1942 (A115, N35110), p. 2."Norah Waren"

1942-06-16: In Nice, right-wing French militants and German Nazis pillaged the city’s synagogue.

1942-06-22: In Paris, the French police helped the Nazis arrest Jews.

1942-07-01: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE Le Petit Marseillais, 1 juillet 1942 (a. 75, n° 26993), p. 3."Norah Waren"

Le Petit Provençal, 1 juillet 1942 (A67, N23829), p. 2."Norah Waren"

1942-07-04: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE" NORAH WAREN" in Artistica: L'Hebdomadaier des  scene et de LEcran. Google Translation: 
“Norah Waren, the beautiful and moving new singer, whose success was triumphant Wednesday at the Alcazar, during the 1st Grand Gala organized by our newspaper, a gala that we comment on elsewhere." PHOTO OF WAREN. "Norah Waren, who is a discovery – and an exclusive – of artistic managers Micol and Thorent, left for Cannes to pursue another success. We will see her again soon in Marseille where she has now conquered the public." Artistica : hebdomadaire des spectacles et mondanités ["puis" hebdomadaire artistique, théâtral, littéraire, cinématographique et mondain "puis" l'hebdomadaire de la scène et de l'écran], p. 1, via: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k7161526k

1942-07-09: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE.  Le Petit Provençal. 9 juillet 1942 (A67, N23836), p. 2."Norah Waren"

1942-07-10: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE. Le Petit Marseillais. 10 juillet 1942 (a. 75, n° 27001), p. 2. "Norah Waren"

1942-07-11: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE. Le Petit Marseillais,11 juillet 1942 (a. 75, n° 27002), p. 2."Norah Waren"

1942-07-12: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE. Le Petit Marseillais. 12 juillet 1942 (a. 75, n° 27003), p. 2."Norah Waren"

1942-07-16 and 17: In Paris, the French police arrested 12,884 men, women, and children and held them in the Velodrome d’Hiver sports stadium with little food or water, and few toilets, the single most extensive roundup of Paris Jews.

1942-07-17: EVE IN FRENCH TO ANDRE OLSTEIN.  Eve wrote in French to André Olstein that Hella was in Marseille with her (male) friend. “My dear André. Thank you kindly for your card. Hella is in Marseille. She is there almost all the time with her [male] friend. His address Hotel St. Ferreol, 13 Rue St Ferreol, Marseille. My very best wish to you & family.”  Signed “Eve.” Address: “Eve Adams.” Daniel Olstein Collection.

1942-08-26 and-27: Roundups in the French zone netted over 6,500 Jews.

1942-08-26: Five hundred Jews, arrested in Nice, were sent to the Drancy internment camp.

1942-10-00: October: The French resistance newspaper J’Accuse warned that gas was being used to execute Jews.

1942-10-15: A major Jewish relief organization reported the reimbursement of twenty-nine francs to “the Misses Zloczower and Weiss” for postage expenses dating back to May 29. Zloczower was almost certainly Eve. See Katz, Daring Life.  JNK MAKE NOTE

1942-11-11: Nazi troops invaded the area of France ruled by Philippe Petain’s government in Vichy. German Nazis and Italian Fascists extended their rule over all of France. A large new group of Jews flocked to Nice, located in the small, southern Italian zone. Italian Fascists’ policies toward Jews were known to be less harsh than the Nazis’ policies.

1942-7-13: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE. Le Petit Marseillais, 12 juillet 1942 (a. 75, n° 27003), p. 2. "Norah Waren". Advertisement for performances at "COLISEE-PLAGE" on July 14. "A la demande generale la grande realiste NORAH WAREN."

1942-7-13: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE. Le Petit Provençal, 13 juillet 1942 (A67, N23839), p. 3. "Norah Waren". Same text as in Le Petit Marseillais.


1943-02-08: HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDNER TO FATHER JACQUES Hella Olstein Soldner addressed a postcard to her father Jacques Olstein, in Switzerland, on February 8, 1943: Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence with her family 12.

1943-02-22: HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDER TO ANDRE OLSTEIN.  Hella Olstein Soldner wrote from Nice, in French, to her brother André Olstein, in Basel, Switzerland. English translation: My dear André, / I thank you for your letter and I am very happy to finally have some news from you. How is Papa! And Georges why doesn't he also write to me?  I would also be happy to receive some good news from him. As for my photos that you find sad, well it's for my work and my songs are sad I cannot deny it. But one day I will send to you a photo with a wide smile, beneath the sun and once again very warm. Then I will take a photo on the promenade then you will have a happier photo.” Page 2: . . . At my home everything goes very well.  Eve does my housework in my little apartment and my stomach is completely in order. (Original: Chez moi tout von tres bien, Eve fait touquans mon ménage dans mon petit appartment et moi estomc est completment en order.)  . . . You know that my husband has disappeared.  It’s the Geneva Red Cross that gave me that news which is not very happy.  But I hope nevertheless that he is alive, He was so nice [“gentile”]. Well one can only wait.  . . . . Ah, I again thank Georges for a card that arrived, but it took 6 months to arrive. It did! So my dear André very quickly send me some news and I love you with all my heart. I also kiss Papa and Georges with all my heart and they should also write. Helly. Best greetings from Eve to everyone. Translation: Mimi Segal Daitz. Hella Olstein Soldner to André Olstein, February 22, 1943, Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence with her family 13.

1943-02-27: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE. Nora Waren singing. Headline "Grenoble." [Listing] "Cabaret Monseigneur. La célèbre chanteuse réaliste Norah Waren et Rino Pieri, chanteur fantaisiste." Le Petit Doughinois, p. 100 Gale.com. Advertisement for the "celebrated realiste singer."

1943-04-27: In Nice, antifascists shot three Italian Fascist officers eating in a restaurant, killing one.

1943-05-06 May: In Nice, Cannes, and Marseille antifascists bombed Italian Fascist soldiers.

1943-05-11: In Nice, Italian Fascists arrested civilians considered unsupportive of the regime.

1943-05-15: In Nice, Italian Fascists arrested civilians considered unsupportive of the regime.

1943-05-19: In Nice, Italian civil authorities arrested a German Jew, Theodor Wolff, the former editor of the influential left-liberal paper the Berliner Tageblatt and a founder of the German Democratic Party. Wolff was sent to a concentration camp in Germany, then to a hospital, where he died. Despite Nice’s location in the relatively safe Italian occupation zone, anti-Jewish incidents were frequent in the city.

1943-07-10: British troops began to occupy the Italian island of Sicily, suggesting to many that the Italian Fascists were losing the war.

1943-07-25: Italian government officials voted no confidence in Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, and his fall ended the Italian Fascist government.

1943-08-10: SOLDNER, HELLA OLSTEIN, TO HER FAMILY.  On August 10, 1943, Hella Soldner, in French, wrote her last extant letter to her family, addressing it to her “My dear ones,” in Switzerland: In translation: “First of all I must excuse myself for not writing earlier. I already received two [cards] from Georges four months ago and I [illegible]. You must have worried about me, but I implore you with all my heart to excuse me, I simply did not write. Everything is good with me I work always a little and a week ago [?] I sang at Radio Monte-Carlo, I could not have let you know ahead of time, because by phone we cannot and by letter you would not have received it in time. / And how are things with you? I hope soon to have a long letter from you all.
[Page 2, left side] And Georges is he still in Zurich? And André and Papa. Send me some of your news quickly. You will surely say that I am demanding after I let you wait so long I demand a swift response. But surely you know how it is. And it was not all laziness believe me. A friend of mine who is very dear to me had troubles, so I have been a bit occupied with him, now everything is going fine for him so I am also more relaxed. And I return to my life and work.  And in Basel how is it, I would very much like to be with you there, but here we don’t have much to complain about, at the moment there are lots of vegetables and fruits and the food supplies remain more or less the same. But it is
[Page 2, right side] very hot, as it must be at your place. / Eve still lives with me, she does [?] my housework, I also have a small dog of four months [Eve habite toujours chez moi, elle me fait m[…] ménage, j’ai aussi un petit chien de 4 moi] you will say one more thing to worry about, maybe, but now I have it and I will keep it. One gets so attached to a little baby and it is nice as all the rest. And if I come one [day] to Switzerland I really hope to be able to bring him. I will most likely not come alone, but not with Eve, but with him. He is a great artist, but for the moment he can’t work, in his profession, because he is an Israelite. He is a brave boy and it makes me hurt for him. And Berleli [?] and Rudi how are they, are they still in Basel? And all the others who I know, give me news of everyone. And do you have news from Lilly? [JNK: Note that Lilly may be the "Lillia" who wrote to Eve's brother telling about Eve's arrest.]
[Page 1, left side] And at your place how is it, health work [?]. So quickly, quickly, your good news, and I beseech you once again to excuse me with all my heart, I embrace you tenderly. Your Helly.” NOTE  Translation thanks to Hannah Leffingwell; letter: Daniel Olstein Collection. Hella Olstein Correspondence with her family 14.

1943-08-19: HELLA SINGS AFTER NAZIS INVADE. "Nora Waren" singing. A "Music Hall" performance by "Nora Waren" at the Alcazar is advertised in Le Radical de Marseille, p. 2. Via https://rapportgallica.bnf.fr/recherche?query=(gallica+adj+%22Nora+Waren%22)&lang=en&suggest=0&aig=2&mb=5&collapsing=true

1943-08-19: LAST AD FOR HELLA SINGING AFTER NAZIS INVADE. "Nora Waren" in Le Petit Provencal. August 19, 1943 (A68, N24178) , p. 2. [Citation added 2023-05-05]

1943-09-08: An armistice between Italian Fascists and antifascist U.S. Allies was publicly announced by US officials. The Italian military began an immediate retreat from southern France. The German military began an immediate occupation.

1943-09-10: The “violently sadistic” Alois Brunner, Adolf Eichmann’s assistant and a senior officer in the Nazi SS, arrived in Nice with a highly trained team, eager to find, deport, and destroy Jews.

1943-09-26: A “Confidential” memo from Heinz Rothke, chief of the Nazis’ French Department of Jewish Affairs, was titled “Final Solution of the Jewish Question in France.”

1943-09-30: At midnight, in Nice, the terrified eight-year-old Serge Klarsfeld hid behind the false back of a closet with his sister, Georgette, and his mother, Raissa, as the Germans pounded on the family’s door. The Nazis took Klarsfeld’s father, and Serge never saw him again.

1943-10-20: At Eve and Hella Olstein’s address in Nice, the Nazis arrested Samuel Straussman, age thirty-nine, a Polish-born dentist. Sent first to the Drancy camp, eight days later he was transported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
NOTE: Researcher Keava McMillan found Straussman’s name by searching for the address “10 rue Alphonse Karr,” Eve’s and Hella’s last address in Nice: via “Searching the Memorial to the Jews Deported from France in One Step,” https://stevemorse.org/france/. McMillan discovered that Straussman and Hella Olstein Soldner also lived at the above address. McMillan then found Straussman in the Central Database of Shoah Victims’ Names at Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, 
https://yvng.yadvashem.org/index.html. Straussman is also included in Serge Klarsfeld’s Memorial to the Jews Deported from France, 1942–1944 (New York: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1983).
A form indicating that Straussmann was born October 26, 1904, in Michałowice, Poland, says that he was deported from France on Convoy 61 on October 28, 1943. Additional data about Straussmann are listed under his name at Memorial de la Shoah, http://www.memorialdelashoah.org.

1943-12-07: EVE ARRESTED.  Eve was arrested while living at 10 Rue Alphonse Karr, Nice. A receipt for cash confiscated from “Eva Zloczower, 10 Rue Alphonse Karr, Nice,” is dated December 7, 1943, and signed by a French police officer whose name is unclear NOTE: See: excavation book, 43 via http://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/zoom.php?code=297301&q=id:p_249347  Though Hella Olstein Soldner was living at the same address as Eve, 10 rue Alphonse Karr, Nice, there is no evidence that she was arrested with Eve. See  Eve Adams Corrections on OutHistory.

1943-12-12: EVE ARRIVED AT DRANCY CAMP.  “Eve Zloczower” is recorded as arriving at the Drancy internment camp in a Paris suburb, five days after her arrest, on Monday, December 12. She was assigned number 9765 and listed on one document as a “governess.” Eve probably hoped to work with the camp’s children.
NOTE  See #43 in excavation book #38 via http://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/zoom.php?code=297301

1943-12-14: HELLA ARRIVED AT DRANCY CAMP   “Hella Soldner nee Olstein” is recorded as arriving at the Drancy internment camp.
NOTE  Livia Parnes to Jonathan Ned Katz providing a copy of a document from the Memorial de la Shoah, Paris, on March 21, 2021, 2:11 PM. Hella was not arrested as the same time as Eve. See Corrections

1943-12-17: EVE AND HELLA DEPORTED TO AUSCHWITZ ON CONVOY 63. Eve and Hella were both deported to Auschwitz Birkenau on “Convoy 63, December 17, 1943. NOTE: A document, a neatly typed, yellowing list in German of Convoy 63 deportees includes “ZLOCZOWER Eva,” born June 15, 1891, internment number 9765, deported from Drancy, number 847 on convoy 63. See also: “Transport 63 from Drancy, Camp, France to Auschwitz Birkenau, Extermination Camp, Poland on 17/12/1943.” See: Deportations Database, Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, 
https://deportation.yadvashem.org/index .html?itemId=5092635;
Also see: Memorial de la Shoah, 
http://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/notice.php?q=identifiant_origine:(FRMEMSH0408707144358); Serge Klarsfeld, Memorial to the Jews Deported from France, 1942–1944: Documentation of the Deportation of the Victims of the Final Solution in France (New York: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1983), Eve on p.484;
Hella Soldner’s deportation is also documented on another page of the German list of persons on Convoy 63. Hella Soldner was number 715. Her date of birth is incorrectly listed as November 14, 1915—either a clerical mistake or she declared herself ten years younger than her actual birth date. “Hella SOLDNER.” See: Memorial de la Shoah,
http://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/noticephp?q=identifiant_origine:(FRMEMSH0408707132539). See “Transport 63,” Deportations Database, https://deportation.yadvashem.org/index.html?itemId=5092635.
Camille Touboul’s testimony in French about Convoy 63
See: Camille Touboul, Le plus long des chemins: De Marseille . Auschwitz [The longest road: From Marseille to Auschwitz], 2nd ed. (Nice, France: Losange, 1998), 39–40, trans. Laurence Senlick. Touboul’s, Serge Smulevik’s, and Leon Léon Arditi’s testimony about Convoy 63 quoted in “Transport 63 from Drancy,” Yad Vashem. Serge Smulevic’s testimony in French about Convoy 63 is quoted in English translation in “Transport 63,”
https://deportation.yadvashem.org /index.html?itemId=5092635. Though I have edited that English translation for clarity, nothing of substance has been changed. “From time to time”: Leon Arditti’s testimony about Convoy 63 is likewise quoted in “Transport 63,” https://deportation.yadvashem.org/index.html?itemId=5092635. See also Leon Arditti, oral history, June 22, 1995, Shoah Foundation Institute Visual History Archive, University of Southern California, via US Holocaust Memorial Museum, https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/vha3443; Klarsfeld, Memorial to the Jews, 485. See a summary description of Convoy 63: Yad Vashem.

1943-12-22: FRENCH GOVERNMENT LISTING OF HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDNER'S DEATH  The French Government officially listed Hella Olstein Soldner dying at Auschwitz on this date, but the actual date on which Hella died is unknown. Research by Livia Pernes provided the following explanation: According to the French Law, once they have information on people who were sent to the camps from France (all camps, labor, concentration), and if they have no death certificate, French law considers that they died five days after their deportation or after the arrival of the transport. In Hella's case, the Government created a death certificate in order to be able to note her name and list it in an official journal.
SEE: French Government Listing: 
https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFARTI000031047545?page=1&pageSize=10&query=olstein&searchField=ALL&searchType=ALL&tab_selection=all&typePagination=DEFAULT; and Livia Parnes, email to JNK, June 17, 2021, 9:10 AM.

1944-02-04: YERACHMIEL ZAHAVY TO JEWISH RELIEF ORGANIZATION   Eve’s brother wrote to a Jewish relief organization asking for word of his sister Eve. Yerachmiel Zahavy to HICEM, February 14, 1944, Eran Zahavy Collection. HICEM named the Jewish relief organization formed by the merger of three earlier organizations. “HICEM,” Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, accessed October 12, 2020, https://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%206368.pdf.

1944-08-23: ANDRE OLSTEIN TO JEWISH RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS. André Olstein, Hella’s brother, wrote to various relief organizations asking for information about Hella and Eve. André Olstein to Comit. International de la Croix-Rouge, Geneva, August 23 (re: Hella), Republiquefrancaise, Commissariat aux Prisonniers, Deportes et Refugi.s, Geneva, October 16, 1944, and July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), and Jüdische Zentralkartothek, Geneva, July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), Daniel Olstein Collection.

1944-10-16: ANDRE OLSTEIN TO JEWISH RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS.André Olstein to relief organizations asking for information about Hella and Eve. Andr. Olstein to R.publique fran.aise, Commissariat aux Prisonniers, D.port.s et R.fugi.s, Geneva, October 16, 1944, and July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), and Jüdische Zentralkartothek, Geneva, July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), Daniel Olstein Collection.

1944-11-27: ANDRE OLSTEIN TO JEWISH RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS. André Olstein to various relief organizations asking for information about Hella and Eve. André Olstein to Comit. International de la Croix-Rouge, Geneva, November 27, 1944 (re: Hella), R.publique fran.aise, Commissariat aux Prisonniers, D.port.s et R.fugi.s, Geneva, October 16, 1944, and July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), and Jüdische Zentralkartothek, Geneva, July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), Daniel Olstein Collection.

1944-12-06: LILLIAN TO ANDRE OLSTEIN.  Lillian, a friend of André Olstein, Hella’s brother, reported to him a story she had heard from a relative about Hella Olstein Soldner’s arrest in Nice: English translation by “Dear André! Monday / You will surely remember that in February, I asked for your sister’s address to inquire about my cousin, who lived in Niza [Nizza], about her whereabouts. These days I got the following answer from that cousin: ‘Ms. S. was not in hiding, but had the wrong papers. When she came home from work in late autumn ‘43 one evening, a ‘car’ was already waiting in front of the house, and she was no longer allowed to go upstairs to take something with her, the same fate had been experienced by another man in the house. After Drancy there is no way of knowing where people are being deported to.’ This is the exact wording. It hurts me a lot to give you such a horrible message. But after you had no news for so long, it must have also been clear to you that your beloved sister disappeared in this way. Maybe she is still alive, and one day, like some (especially brave) people, she will come back (or appear again). — I save all other banal words that can bring you little comfort, but be sure that I empathize with you [lit. feel with you], because in the same letter I also received the news that 6 of my close relatives from Holland were transported to Belgium. If I can serve you any other way, I’m happy to help. Let me hear something from you. I still have another book from you which you will definitely get back when I finally get to read it. / Many warm regards, Lillian.” Lillian [no last name listed] to André Olstein. [date uncertain], in German, trans. Keanu Heydari, Daniel Olstein Collection. The letter is now in an envelope from the Geneva Red Cross dated December 6, 1944, but André Olstein may not have returned it to its original envelope. JNK: Note that Hella asks about "Lilly" in her letter of xxxxxxx.

1945-07-28: ANDRE OLSTEIN TO JEWISH RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS. André Olstein, Hella’s brother, wrote to various relief organizations asking for information about Hella and Eve. André Olstein to Republique francaise, Commissariat aux Prisonniers, De.portes et Refugies, Geneva, July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), and to Jüdische Zentralkartothek, Geneva, July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), Daniel Olstein Collection.

1956-00-00: HENRY MILLER AND EVE  Discussion of Henry Miller’s friendship with Eve in: Alfred Perles, My Friend Henry Miller (New York: John Day, 1956).

An anti-homosexual man walks into a lesbian and gay den (Eve’s) and reports his reaction: David George Kin (pseudonym of David George Plotkin), Women Without Men: True Stories of Lesbian Love in Greenwich Village (New York: Brookwood, 1958), 101

1972-12-24: ZLOCZEWER, ZECHARIA, RECALLS EVE.  Zecharia Zloczewer recalled cousin Eve in a letter to Jacob Alter which Alter sent to Eve’s brother, Yerachmiel Zahavy. It for the first time suggests that Zahavy had some inkling of his sister’s queer life before he died. A typed copy of Zecharia Zloczewer’s letter in Yiddish addressed to Jacob Alter, is included with a typed letter from Alter to Yerachmiel Zahavy, in Hebrew, dated December 24, 1972, from Tel Aviv, on the stationery of the Mława Emigrants Organization; Eran Zahavy Collection, trans. Naomi Cohen.

1978-00-00: EVE AND HENRY MILLER  A brief mention of Eve’s friendship with Henry Miller in: Jay Martin, Always Merry and Bright: The Life of Henry Miller; An Unauthorized Biography (Santa Barbara, CA: Capra Press, 1978), 319, 531.

1982-00-00: REXROTH RECALLS EVE AND RUTH AND GREY COTTAGE  Poet Kenneth Rexroth recalled Eve, her partner Ruth Olson Norlander, and The Grey Cottage in: Kenneth Rexroth, An Autobiographical Novel (Santa Barbara, CA: Ross-Erikson, 1982), 260. Rexroth’s book is copyrighted 1964, 1966, 1978, 1982.

1984-02-01: GREY COTTAGE RECALLED   Passing reference to The Grey Cottage and Cramer’s suicide attempt. William D. Miller, Dorothy Day: A Biography (Harper & Row, February 1, 1984).

1988-00-00: HENRY MILLER AND EVE  One of Miller’s letters citing Eve selling Miller’s watercolors is mentioned in: Ian S. MacNiven, ed., The Durrell-Miller Letters: 1935–1980 (New York: New Directions Publishing, 1988).

1989-00-00: CHAUNCEY ON EVE George Chauncey, Gay New York: Urban Culture and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940. Yale University, History Supervisor: Nancy Cott. Readers: John Boswell, David Montgomery. Probably includes section on Eve Adams.

1991-00-00: EVE AND HENRY MILLER  Brief mention of Eve in: Robert Cross, Henry Miller: The Paris Years (Big Sur, CA: PeerAmid Press, 1991), p. ?

1991-00-00: MILLER AND EVE. Miller biographer Robert Ferguson claims that during a 1928 trip to Paris with his wife, June, Miller “had discovered Eve Adams’ pornographic bookshop in Montparnasse and purchased a copy of Fanny Hill and a set of dirty postcards.” However, Ferguson provides no source for these claims, and no other source says that Eve ran a bookshop, pornographic or otherwise. Robert Ferguson, Henry Miller: A Life (New York: W. W. Norton, 1991), 177.

1991-00-00: REXROTH ON EVE  The later part of Kenneth Rexroth’s life is discussed in a book edited by Linda Hamalian titled “Keneth Rexroth, An Autobiographical Novel” (New York: New Directions, 1991), easy to confuse with Rexroth’s own Autobiographical Novel (Santa Barbara, CA: Ross-Erikson, 1982). In Hamalian’s volume Rethroth says: “Eve Adams had gone off to New York and Ruth [Olson Norlander] had opened a place at 19 West Pearson Street in an old barn,” and Rexroth and his friends “all moved in”; “Rexroth Autobiography,” Bureau of Public Secrets, accessed September 23, 2020, http://www.bopsecrets.org/rexroth/autobio/4.htm. A “homo” scene at 19 West Pearson Street is described in Zorbaugh, Gold Coast, 96.

1993-00-00: CHAUNCEY ON EVE  George Chauncey, “Long-Haired Men and Short-Haired Women: Building a Gay World in the Heart of Bohemia,” Rick Beard and Leslie Cohen Berkowitz, editors, Greenwich Village: Culture and Counterculture (Museum of the City of New York, Rutgers University Press), 1993, 151-163. Eve is mentioned on 162.

1994-00-00: CHAUNCEY ON EVE. Two pages on Eve in Greenwich Village appeared in George Chauncey, Gay New York: Gender, Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World (New York: Basic Books, 1994).

1998-00-00: JAMES T. FARRELL, HIS WIFE, AND EVE  A brief mention of Eve is contained in: Edgar Marquess Branch, A Paris Year: Dorothy and James T. Farrell, 1931–1932 (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1998), 32–33, 120, 165n15–16, 185n10.

1998-11-26: GEORGES OLSTEIN TO YAD VASHEM   Georges Olstein, in Zurich, Switzerland, submitted a form about his sister Hella Olstein Soldner and her family to Yad Vashem, including a photo that Soldner used as a singer (German: Sängerin). He said she was born March 5, 1905, and cited Hella’s husband’s name as Gaston. He suggested without citing his evidence that Hella had died in Auschwitz in August 1944, not immediately upon arrival.

1999-00-00: TERRY ON EVE  Jennifer Terry, An American Obsession: Science, Medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern Society. 1999. Pp. 269-270 on “Eve Kotchever” and “Eve Addams” citing Chauncey, Gay New York.

2000-00-00: HEAP ON EVE. A few important pages and research about Eve are contained in Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.

2000-09-00: REIS ON EVE AND REITMAN  Major information on Eve’s relationship with Ben Reitman is contained in Martha Lynn Reis, “Hidden Histories: Ben Reitman and the ‘Outcast’ Women Behind Sister of the Road: The Autobiography of Box-Car Bertha,” PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, September 2000. In addition, Reis sent scanned copies and transcriptions of Eve’s letters to Reitman, archives in the University of Illinois, Chicago, Library, to Eve’s relative in Israel, Eran Zahavy, who shared them with me. Reis’s transcripts of some of Eve’s letters are invaluable, since the University of Illinois Library cannot find them after they were apparently recatalogued.

Reitman’s recollection of “Eve” is quoted and referenced by Tim Cresswell, The Tramp in America (London: Reaktion Books, 2001), 102–103. It probably dates to the early 1930s. Cresswell did not identify the “Eve” about whom Reitman writes and “Eve Adams.”

2004-00-00: SHOCKLY ON EVE  Shockly, Jay. Eve Addams’ Tearoom 129 MacDougal Street House Designation Report (New York: City of New York, 2004), researched and written by Jay Shockley; SVHD.

2004: Jack Gottlieb (2004). Funny It Doesn't Sound Jewish: How Yiddish Songs and Synagogue Melodies Influences Tin Pan Alley, Broadway, and Hollywood. SUNY Press. ISBN 9780844411309

2007: Paul Buhle (2007). Jews and American Popular Culture: Music, theater, popular art, and literature. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 9780275987954.

2008: Cary Leiter (2008). The Importance of the Yiddish Theatre in the Evolution of the Modern American TheatreISBN 9780549927716

2009-01-00 (Winter): SEE ON THE YOUNG AND THE EVIL Sam See, “Making Modernism New: Queer Mythology in The Young and Evil,” English Literary History 76, no. 4 (Winter 2009): “Eve Addams” cited 1075.

2010-04-15: Barbara Kahn, writer and director, "The Spring and Fall of Eve Adams" Theater for the New City, April 15 - May 2, 2010 via https://www.theateronline.com/venuebook.xzc?PK=210&View=Hist

2010-04-20: Jerry Talmer, "At 129 MacDougal, circa 1926, lesbian tearoom ruled" (interview with Barbara Kahn). The Villager, April 20, 2010. 

2010-05-01: Paulanne Simmons, ”Theater and History Meet at MacDougal Street In Barbara Kahn's ‘The Spring and Fall of Eve Adams;" “the true story of this extraordinary woman . . . .” New York Theatre Wire, May 1, 2010 via: http://www.nytheatre-wire.com/ps10051t.htm

2011-05-28: WALLACE ON EVE  Kreg Wallace, "Eve's Hangout." Lost Womyn's Space, May 28, 2011. http://lostwomynsspace.blogspot.com/2011/05/eves-hangout.html

2012-02-09: KAHN ON EVE.  Barbara Kahn’s Unreachable Eden at The Theater for the new City, February 9-26, 2012. Includes: Kahn’s “Historical Background of the Play,” via http://www.barbara-kahn.com/eden.htm

2012-02-15: Katelyn Manfre, “Lesbian Tearoom Before Its Time,” review of Barbara Kahn’s Unreachable Eden, The Forward, February 15, 2012., https://forward.com/schmooze/151346/lesbian-tearoom-before-its-time/

2013-01-04: Angelo Pitillo, “A Gay Old Time: The Scenes and Times That Defined Each Era,” New York (magazine), January 4, 2013 via: https://nymag.com/nightlife/features/gay-bar-history-2013-1/

2013-12-24: Ted Merwin, “Imprisoned For Who She Was. Barbara Kahn fills in more of the Eve Adams story in ‘Island Girls.’” The New York Jewish Week. December 24, 2013 via https://jewishweek.timesofisrael.com/imprisoned-for-who-she-was/

2014-05-25: Barbara Kahn, “Unreachable Eden,” Eve Adams (Eva Kotchever), May 25, 2014. YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zt24Ui1JE_0

2014-10-04: KAHN ON EVE.  William Coyle, “Just the Facts, Ma’am.” Review of Barbara Kahn’s The Spring and Fall of Eve Adams at The Theater for the New City, via https://www.offoffonline.com/offoffonline/4941

2014-10-30: GREENWICH VILLAGE SOCIETY FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION. "LGBTQ History: MacDougal Street - GVSHP | Preservation | Off the Grid". Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation, October 30, 2014.

2016-00-00: NEW YORK CITY LGBT SITES PROJECT ON EVE'S  “Eve Adams’ Tearoom.” NYC LGBT Historic Sites Project. https://www.nyclgbtsites.org/site/eve-addams-tearoom/

2016-00-00: SPRINGATE ON EVE  Springate, Megan E., ed., LGBTQ America: A Theme Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender and Queer History, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, 2016. “Eve Addams” cited twice.

2016-11-15: SCELFO ON EVE  Julie Scelfo, The Women Who Made New York  (Seal Press, November 15, 2016). Reference to Eve Adams and her arrest.

2016-12-01: O’CONNOR REVIEW.  A reviewer in The New York Times Book Review mentions Eve, a “Polish-Jewish immigrant” accused of a homosexual advance to a policewoman, a reference which set me on my research: Maureen O’Connor, review of  The Women Who Made New York by Julie Scelfo,  New York Times Book Review, December 1, 2016. Jonathan Ned Katz begins research on Eve Adams.

2016-12-29: KAHN ON EVE  Barbara Kahn, Press Kit for The Spring and Fall of Eve Adams, “Historical Background of the Play,” including a list of references and bibliography, email to Jonathan Ned Katz, December 29, 2016., 5:21 PM

2018-00-00: ELLEDGE ON EVE. The Grey Cottage is mentioned in Jim Elledge, The Boys of Fairy Town: Sodomites, Female Impersonators, Third-Sexers, Pansies, Queers, and Sex Morons in Chicago’s First Century (Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2018), 231.

2018-03-19: KAHN ON EVE. “The Spring and Fall of Eve Adams in New York,” Concert reading at festival “Untold Stories of Jewish Women, at the Museum of Jewish Heritage, NYC. Polish Daily News, March 3, 2018 via https://poland.us/strona,55,29806,0,the-spring-and-fall-of-eve-adams-in-new-york.html

2018-04-10: HAAFMAN ON EVE   “Eve Addams’ Tearoom, at 129 MacDougal Street, was run by Eva Kotchever, the so-called queen of the third sex;” Julia Van Haaften, “Berenice Abbott: A Life in Photography (April 10, 2018).”

2018-08-00 (Fall; month approximate): SHOCKEY ON EVE  Gwen Shockey, photo of 129 MacDougal Street, former home of “Eve Addams’s Tearoom,”; “Photo-Documenting the Lost Landscape of Lesbian Nightclubs in New York City” by Gwen Shockey, and  Karen LoewChange Over Time (University of Pennsylvania PressVolume 8, Number 2, Fall 2018, pp. 186-205. See http://gwenshockeyfineart.com/news

2019-09-03: GATTUSO ON EVE   Reina Gattuso, "The Founder of America's Earliest Lesbian Bar Was Deported for Obscenity," Atlas Obscura, September 3, 2019. 

2019-11-18: McMILLAN ON EVE  Keava McMillan, "Shownotes: Eve's Tearoom Part 1, New York", Part 2, Paris. Queer Ephemera. Queer Ephemera was a podcast collaboration between researcher and writer, Keava McMillan, performers Jonathan McLean and Rosa McMillan, with sound design by Rob MacNeacail. Website expired. Included major research discoveries by McMillan incorporated into The Daring Life and Dangerous Times.

2020-05-12: DANIEL OLSTEIN ON EVE AND HELLA.  Information and documentation on Hella Olstein’s family background was supplied by Daniel Olstein, whose father was Hella’s brother André Olstein. Daniel Olstein, e-mail to JNK, May 12, 2020, and Zoom call.

2020-06-25: CARPENTER ON EVE Julia Carpenter, “A Woman to Know: Eve Adams.” Features a photo from Wikimedia Commons of two women, neither of whom is Eve or one of her companions; via https://awomantoknow.substack.com/p/a-woman-to-know-eve-adams

2020-12-22: EVENS ON EVE   Important original research on Eve Adams is contained in Elizabeth Evens, “Policewomen, Plainclothes, and Pelvic Examinations: NYPD Undercover Investigations of Abortion and Queer Women, 1913–1926.” Modern American History, Published online by Cambridge University Press: December 22, 2020, 1-18 via https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/modern-american-history/article/plainclothes-policewomen-on-the-trail-nypd-undercover-investigations-of-abortionists-and-queer-women-19131926/BAA8DD80C5B8D33A25194E0690A30C2D

2021-04-15: BARDOU ON EVE  Florian Bardou, “Persécution des gays et des lesbiennes: au mémorial de la Shoah, ‘une reconnaissance tardive mais désormais officielle’.” Liberation (Paris, France): April 15, 2021. (“Persecution of gays and lesbians: at the Memorial de la Shoah [Paris, France], 'late but now official recognition'." “The Paris town hall is also engaged in a clear way by giving street names to homosexual people of this period [the 1920s and ‘30s]. Since 2019, for example, a street, a school and a nursery at the Porte de la Chapelle (18th district) are named after Eva Kotchever. She was an immigrant Jewish, Polish and anarchist. In the 1920s, she opened a literary, feminist and lesbian tearoom in New York, before being deported to Europe for "moral turpitude". With her partner Hella Olstein, they lived for a time in Paris and, in 1943, they were arrested in Nice, then deported via Drancy to Auschwitz and gassed on their arrival. Renaming places after her is therefore a way to pay homage to a forgotten historical figure who nevertheless had great political significance. Included photo of Eve Adams and Hella Olstein. See https://www.liberation.fr/societe/sexualite-et-genres/persecution-des-gays-et-des-lesbiennes-au-memorial-de-la-shoah-une-reconnaissance-tardive-mais-desormais-officielle-20210415_2CFVLG7PLJFJVPUJOSOTYEX32E/

2021-05-00: ELIAS REVIEW OF KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY. Michael Elias, review The Daring Life. Foreword.com: “fascinating . . . presented in full, rich terms.” Via https://www.forewordreviews.com/reviews/the-passenger-9781567926972/

2021-05-18: KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY OF EVE. Jonathan Ned Katz. The Daring Life and Dangerous Times of Eve Adams. Chicago Review Press, May 5. 2021

2021-06-00 - 2021-08-00: ROWBOTHAM ON EVE  "Sheila Rowbotham's Bedside table," Mslexia, June, July, August, 2021. Robotham calls Eve's story and The Daring Life and Dangerous Times of Eve Adams "absolutely gripping."

2021-06-04: MCQUIRK ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY OF EVE Siobhan McGuirk, [review The Daring Life], Representology Journal, Vol 2, Birmingham City [England] Institute of Media and English: "a welcome intervention . . . delivers a potent reminder that queer liberation has always been intertwined with other struggles: for the rights of immigrants, women, ethnic and racial minorities, workers, all marginalised peoples. . . . underscores how all of the aforementioned struggles have been propelled forward by countless unrecognised and under-appreciated figures . . . . His book marks an important corrective . . . . weaves a complex picture of a complex woman, set against a richly textured canvas of the multiple and overlapping ‘dangerous times’ . . . . constructs an affectionate, and ultimately affecting image of a potential everyday icon. . . . The author’s skill and experience as a historian comes to the fore in his scene-setting passages and in his asides . . . . maneuvers ably by carefully noting his own and others’ speculations. . . ." Representology Journal, Vol 2, Birmingham City [England] Institute of Media and English, June 4, 2021 via: https://www.bcu.ac.uk/media/research/sir-lenny-henry-centre-for-media-diversity/representology-journal/representology-journal-vol-2/the-daring-life-and-dangerous-times-of-eve-adams

2021-06-15: EISENSCHINK ON EVE  Christoph Eisenschink, "PROUD HEROES. Eva Kotchever: Deported because she ran one of the first lesbian bars in the USA," GQ (German Edition, original in German): https://www.gq-magazin.de/lifestyle/artikel/eva-kotchever-deportiert-weil-sie-frauen-liebte-pride-month-lgbtq-community?fbclid=IwAR2CSbU6SCVoIle9bEYFS6aRRWbtaWCuzVvlBNHuO3buzW4mgtYZUADEv5E TRANSLATION: On the occasion of Pride Month we want to remember “Proud Heroes” who were born in Pride month June: people and activists who fought and suffered for the rights of the LGBTQ community. Eva Kotchever ran the lesbian eatery “Eve's Tearoom” in New York in the 1920s. [NEW PARAGRAPH] Today, June 15, 130 years ago, Chawa Zloczower was born in the Polish city of Mława, which was then part of the Russian Empire. In 1912 the Jewish woman emigrated to the United States, where she took the name Eva Kotchever - although she also used the names Eve Adams or Eve Addams, androgynous pseudonyms that allude to Adam and Eve. Because: Kotchever loved women. In the United States, she frequented left-wing intellectual circles and surrounded herself with anarchists. [NEW PARAGRAPH] “Eve's Tearoom”, a lesbian eatery in New York in the 20s. In the basement of a building at 129 MacDougal Street, Kotchever opened an LGBTQ-friendly eatery. The tea room in New York's Greenwich Village was initially known as “Eve & Ann's”, later as “Eve's Hangout”, and finally as “Eve's Tearoom”. A persistent rumor has it that there was a sign at the entrance to the restaurant that read: “Men are permitted, but not welcome”. Even if this is in all likelihood exactly that, a rumor, it is undisputed that “Eve's Tearoom” was mostly frequented by women. The entertainment program included poetry evenings and music events. [NEW PARAGRAPH] Before the establishment opened, Kotchever toured the United States selling left-wing publications, drawing the attention of the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) under the infamous Communist eater J. Edgar Hoover, then young. Later, the situation in Greenwich Village became increasingly tense, with surveillance and police raids. Informants smuggled into the relevant bars in order to find “incriminating” evidence of the allegedly obscene goings-on there. 

2021-06-17: CABALLERO ON EVE Caballero, Oscar (Paris), "La persecución nazi de homosexuales," LAVANGUARDIA.COM (Barcelona, Spain). The Shoah Memorial in Paris recovers in an exhibition the history and harassment of gays and lesbians, marked by Nazism and sent to extermination camps: https://www.lavanguardia.com/.../persecucion-nazi.html
Chawa Złoczower and Hella Olstein in France in 1934. The exhibition recovers stories such as that of the Polish Chawa Ztoczower (1891-1943): at the age of 21 she emigrated to the United States, renamed Eve Adams and opened in 1925, in New York, Eve Adams Tea Room, a literary café, a refuge for Lesbians according to the police, who expelled her to Poland in 1927. In the 1930s, in Paris, she lived with Hella Olstein, a Polish Jew. In 1943 they were arrested in Nice and left for Auschwitz "on train No. 63, December 17".

2021-06-21: DOWNS ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY. Downs, Jim. "Rediscovering Eve Adams, the Radical Lesbian Activist. How Jonathan Ned Katz retraced the story of the woman who wrote what might be the first ethnography of American lesbian life." The New Yorker, online June 21, 2021; https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/rediscovering-eve-adams-the-radical-lesbian-activist. 

2021-06-21: ENZER ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY Enszer, Julie R. [Review of The Daring Life], Jewish Book Council: “a stun­ning new biog­ra­phy . . . . Les­bian Love is aston­ish­ing. . . . con­tributes to an array of fields of inquiry: Jew­ish his­to­ry, Holo­caust stud­ies, les­bian his­to­ry, and les­bian lit­er­ary his­to­ry. It also demon­strates the cun­ning inge­nu­ity of queer his­to­ri­ans in piec­ing togeth­er lives of LGBTQ peo­ple who have pre­vi­ous­ly been exclud­ed. . . . a com­pelling pic­ture of Adams’s life . . . .  via: https://www.jewishbookcouncil.org/book/the-daring-life-and-dangerous-times-of-eve-adams

2021-07-02: PALMER ON EVE AND ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY  Palmer, Emily. "Overlooked No More: Eve Adams, Writer Who Gave Lesbians a Voice. Her 1925 book, “Lesbian Love,” is one of the earliest examples of American lesbian literature. She also ran Eve’s Hangout, a literary haunt in Manhattan." New York Times online, July 2, 2021; print edition July 5, 2021. See https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/02/obituaries/eve-adams-overlooked.html

2021-07-06: Kennethinthe(212) [blog] linked to New York Times story about Eve; The New York Times: "Overlooked no more: Eve Adams, writer who gave lesbians a voice."

2021-08-16: ZAHAVY ON EVE  Eran Zahavy, “But why does an anarchist need citizenship?” Haaretz (Tel Aviv, Israel), August 16, 2021. Translated and adapted from Hebrew with the permission of the author. See: https://outhistory.org/exhibits/show/evad/2021--august-16--but-why-does-

2021-11-00: LANGER ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY [review of The Daring Life]. The Gay and Lesbian Review, November-December, pages 32-33. “Katz has given back to us an extraordinary and courageous lesbian. Chava/Eve/Eva would have remained lost to us . . . but for his dedication to rediscovering her life and work.” Langer comments on several of Katz's fact claims (see EVE ADAMS: CORRECTIONS)

2021-12-13: SIENNA ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY  Noem Sienna, [review of The Daring Life], In Geveb: Journal of Jewish Studies. “Ten Unanswered Questions: An Unconventional Interview with Eve Adams.” In geveb Journal of Jewish Studies. Praises "Katz’s thrilling and meticulously-researched biography,” adding: "Katz’s book is a sensitive portrait of Adams’ life, highlighting both the challenges faced by LGBTQ people in early 20th-century America and their significance for understanding the art, literature, and politics of the period." See: https://ingeveb.org/blog/ten-unanswered-questions

2022-01-20: CHARLES ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY Anne Charles, [review of The Daring Life], Lambda Literary: "Katz expertly juxtaposes shaded historical events to chronicle . . . Adams’s frantic missives asking friends for money . . . out of fascist occupied Nice. . . . riveting, heartbreaking . . . ." See https://lambdaliterary.org/2022/01/a-radical-lesbian-review-of-the-daring-life-and-dangerous-times-of-eve-adams/

2022-02-22 DOYLE ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY (email to JNK): Review posted to Amazon by JD Doyle, JD Doyle Archives, February 2022.  I’ve been reading the books of Jonathan Ned Katz for forty-three years. That’s right, 43. I came out in 1978 and his “Gay American History,” released that year, was one of the books I immediately devoured upon my awakening to our culture and history. That copy is still on my bookshelf. His fifty-some years of writing includes many books, and he set in motion a monumental body of work itself if you consider his countless contributions to the site OutHistory.org, which he founded in 2008.
The latest book is in a way a detective story, as tracking down the history of the woman who became Eve Adams is a remarkable journey. Eve was a Jewish, Polish immigrant, and distinctively a rebel, one who ran in anarchist circles (think: Emma Goldman), hosted lesbian-friendly tea rooms (Chicago and New York) and had the nerve to conduct a crowning act of bravery. In 1925 she wrote and published a book with no disguised agenda called “Lesbian Love.”
This made her the target of the police and the U.S. Bureau of Investigation, who pursued a campaign of arrests and moved to deport her. After several years, they succeeded. And this book continues her story of trying to survive in wartime Europe, still selling radical books. That Katz could assemble so much detail of her life is amazing, and the tales of her struggles, moving from country to country, are very engrossing
Not only did Katz put together and thoroughly document this story of (what we would call) an activist lesbian during those years, but he was able to rescue the history that drove her. At the end of this book is her complete work, “Lesbian Love.” Only 150 copies were published. Police had thought they had destroyed all copies of her “obscene” book. But they missed one. The 30-page volume includes her own illustrations. This is history reclaimed.

2022-02-23 BINNERTS ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY (email): Paul Binnerts to JNK (email): Dear Jonathan, Congratulations for your book on Eve Adams. I just finished reading it and enjoyed it very much. For many reasons. Most of all because you've captured her pretty dramatic life very well in a very factual style, stating the facts of her life one after the other, almost with the sound of a question mark in them: how is this possible, how could this happen, how did she survive, how did she eventually not survive?  And what a wild and improbable life she led, coming from Poland as an immigrant, finding herself in America in the anarchistic and revolutionary circles of Emma Goldman and Ben Reitman, but not as a political agitator, but as a saleswoman of socialist magazines wandering all over America, discovering herself as a Lesbian, opening tearooms in Chicago and Greenwich Village in New York for likeminded people, writing a booklet Lesbian Love, being arrested and deported to Europe where she finds herself trapped when the Nazi's move in and is being deported back to Poland where she came from. To go up in flames. In your talk on YouTube, you said that you think she painted her hair red. I don't know. Quite a lot of Polish Jews were redheads, I've seen them, and they stand out. I say 'were' because not so many are left. 
Eve's fate is truly tragic - what she wanted to escape she became a victim of. I don't know if her 'wanderlust' came from the vital restlessness that drove her as an immigrant to America in the first place. You're never really safe; you always need to have your little suitcase packed, ready to go at the first alarm. It's therefore even more amazing that she did the things she did, that she mixed with notorious 'enemies of the state' like Emma Goldman, or that she opened a Tearoom for gay people, and published a booklet about lesbian love. She also comes across as wildly adventurous and naive at that: eyes wide open, afraid for nothing, taking risks but doing what she does regardless of the risks and dangers. In a way completely innocent.  I think she must as a character have been very persuasive and impulsive, not cautious or reflective. What she did, how she lived spoke for itself, was a matter of fact.  
Her booklet is not a treatise about lesbian love, or propaganda for the socialist idea of 'free love,' but rather a hidden autobiography in brief sketches of her lesbian encounters and adventures. Nor is it sensationally pornographic, but rather a very decent description of Eve's attempts to find a home, protection, safety with another woman, love.  Her book, short as it is, is almost just as 'factual' as your own writing, showing what the characters do (their actions), without any further interpretative comment. Unbelievable, nowadays at least, that this book was found obscene (only because it was a tabu). 
I find it amazing that someone found the only known copy (of the 150!) in the lobby of her building in Albany, unattended. But Eve being a lesbian is not the only topic of your book. She is also Jewish, which doesn't seem to play a distinctive role in how she got expelled from the United States. There might have been an underlying notion with the (F)BI authorities that enhanced the case against her, but it's not mentioned. That she is Jewish becomes fatal for her when she is in France when the Nazis have occupied the country and the Vichy puppet government starts to round up the Jews first to Drancy, and then off to Poland. Here her 'innocence' seems to make her unfit to find a solution for a very tricky situation, or so it seems. Her endeavors to escape the Nazi hunters are hardly convincing, and for instance very unlike what other Jews in similar circumstances in the South of France did to escape. They often were, admittedly, not successful either. But it almost looks like Eve didn't, or couldn't believe they would 'catch' her. 
I find it striking that you in your acknowledgment are writing so engagingly and personally exactly about that part of her life. I found that very beautiful. The tone in that part of your book is different, I see your engagement, your compassion and empathy, and most of all why and where this comes from: it's you. You identify with her suffering. And I don't remember if you say this, but you admire her. So do I admire your book. I'm glad I've read it. Now I will pass it on . . . .  Love, Paul


Berkman, Alexander. Arrested for organizing antiwar, antidraft meetings, at least one of which Eve attended. Goldman and Berkman were declared guilty, fined heavily, sentenced to the maximum two years in prison, and recommended for deportation when their jail terms ended.

bread and roses: see Schneiderman, Rose.

Cohn, Fannia: The one union leader who had women friends. Fannia Cohn  Research Wolfson, Theresa? ?? https://academic.oup.com/north-carolina-scholarship-online/book/16957/chapter-abstract/174236326?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Equi, Marie. Radical lesbian doctor.

Fitzgerald, "Fitzi"

Goldman, Emma

Lemlich, Clara (married name Shavelson)

Marbury, Elizabeth. Daring literary agent and masculine partner of interior decorator Elsie de Wolfe and later, Anne Morgan, daughter of J. Pierpont Morgan, the richest capitalist in the world at the time. Marbury joined Morgan in supporting the women garment workers strike, and they both arranged a meeting of the strikers and strike leaders at The Colony Club established by Anne Morgan for rich women.

Newman, Pauline M. (called"Paul") one of the two union leaders who had romantic friendships or sexual and affectional intimacies with Frieda S. Miller ("not fully sexual"??? Orleck book)
Pauline M. Newman (October 18, 1887 – April 8, 1986) was an American labor activist. She is best remembered as the first female general organizer of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) and for six decades of work as the education director of the ILGWU Health Center. In 1917, the Women's Trade Union League dispatched Newman to Philadelphia, to build a new branch of the league. There she met a young Bryn Mawr economics instructor named Frieda S. Miller.[3] Miller, who was chafing at the constraints of academic life, gladly left academia to help Newman with her organizing. Within the year, the two were living together. It was the beginning of a turbulent but mutually satisfying relationship that would last until Miller's death in 1974. In 1923, the two women moved to New York's Greenwich Village, where they raised Miller's daughter together. Though lesbian families were not openly discussed in the 1920s, their family seems to have been accepted by government and union friends and colleagues.[3]   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauline_Newman_(labor_activist)
Orleck, Annelise. Common Sense and a Little Fire: Women and Working-Class Politics in the United States, 1900-1965. University of North Carolina Press. 1995. ISBN 0-8078-4511-6.
Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m Orleck, Annelise. "Pauline Newman." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 20 March 2009. Jewish Women's Archive. April 17, 2010.
^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Orleck, Annelise. Chapter 7: Pauline Newman: Immigration, Jewish Radicalism, and Gender. In Arnesen, Eric. The Human Tradition in American labor History. Scholarly Resources Inc. pp. 107-127. 2004. ISBN 0-8420-2986-9. ^ "Guide to the Pauline M. Newman Autobiography," Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library.

Reitman, Ben Lewis

Schneiderman, Rose. A key player in New York’s suffrage movement, Schneiderman is one of many who spoke on the subject at rallies and meetings called at Cooper Union. She is famous for saying “What the woman who labors wants is the right to live, not simply exist — the right to life as the rich woman has the right to life, and the sun and music and art. You have nothing that the humblest worker has not a right to have also. The worker must have bread, but she must have roses, too.” Schneiderman never married . . . .[14] She had a long-term relationship with Maud O'Farrell Swartz (1879–1937), another working class woman active in the WTUL, until Swartz's death in 1937. It is unknown whether this relationship was romantic or not, but Swartz and Schneiderman were indeed work and travel partners, and were invited to events together and gave gifts together. According to Historian Annelise Orleck, "Schneiderman gives no more specific description of her feelings for Swartz than to say that 'she was a wonderful companion.' Euphemistic or not, that probably provides an emotionally accurate sense of their relationship."[15] via Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_Schneiderman