Bibliography on John Wesley Carhart and Norma Trist

A searchable copy of Norma Trist is available online at: "John Wesley Carhart." Accessed October 31, 2014 from: “Kreische, Heinrich Ludwig.” Accessed November 3, 2014 from:

Anderson, Christopher.John Wesley Carhart … Methodist “Circuit Driver” and Automotive Pioneer.” Accessed October 31, 2014 from

Anderson,  H. Allen. “Carhart, John Weseley.” The Handbook of Texas Online. Published by the Texas State Historical Association. Accessed October 19, 2014, from:

Anonymous. “52 Ancestors: #11 John Wesley Carhart (Minister arrested for sending Obscene Literature thru mail!).” Acccessed October 31, 2014, from:

Anonymous. “Funeral of Dr. J. W. Carhart [December 22, 1914].” San Antonio Express. (San Antonio, Tex.), Vol. 49, No. 357, Ed. 1 Wednesday, December 23, 1914. Accessed October 24, 2014 from

Anonymous. [Review of Norma Trist] “A Fishy Novel, by a Texas Doctor.” Texas Medical Journal 11, November 1895, 247-251. (Dr. F. E. Daniel was the editor of this journal and perhaps the reviewer.) Accessed October 26, 2014 from

Anonymous. [Review of Norma Trist] Medical Mirror (St. Louis, MO), November 1895, page 524. (Dr. Isaac Newton Love was the editor of this journal and perhaps the reviewer.) Accessed October 30, 2014 from:

Anonymous. [Review of Norma Trist.] Medical Age, Vol. 14, page 120. 

Baird, Violet M. "John Wesley Carhart," Texana 9 (Spring 1971). pages 135-141. (Scholarly article with endnotes.)

Carhart, John Wesley.  Norma Trist; or Pure Carbon: A Story of the Inversion of the Sexes (Austin, Texas: Eugene von Boeckmann, copyright: September 26, 1895). Accessed November 3, 2014 from
Also available at: Houston Public LibraryHoustonTexas.

Donoghue, Emma. Inseparable: Desire Between Women in Literature. (NY: Knopf, First Edition, May 25, 2010). (Discusses Norma Trist.)

Duggan, Lisa. Sapphic Slashers: Sex, Violence, and American Modernity. Duke University Press, January 10, 2001). (Norma Trist discussed: 183-186.)

Emery, Kim. The Lesbian Index: Pragmatism and Lesbian Subjectivity in the Twentieth-Century United States. SUNY University Press, 2002. (Chapter 2, “Evolutionary Love” discusses Norma Trist, pp. 31-56.

Emery, Kim. “Steers, Queers, and Manifest Destiny: Representing the Lesbian Subject in Turn-of-the-Century Texas.” Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Jul., 1994), pp. 26-57. 

Faderman, Lillian. Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth-Century America. NY: Columbia University Press; 1st edition October 15, 1991. (Discusses Norma Trist p. 56.)

Fowler, Gene (Austin, TX). “John Wesley Carhart, Early Texas Physician.”  Texas Highways” The Travel Magazine of Texas. Accessed October 19, 2014 from:

Katz, Jonathan Ned. Gay/Lesbian Almanac: A New Documentary. NY: Harper & Row, 1st edition, 1983. (Discusses and excerpts Norma Trist, pp. 277-284, n.33, page 696.).

Lewis, Willie Newbury. Between Sun and Sod (Clarendon, Texas: Clarendon Press, 1938; rev. ed., College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1976). (References Carhart.)

Randel, Jo Stewart, ed.,  A Time to Purpose: A Chronicle of Carson County (4 vols., Hereford, Texas: Pioneer, 1966–72). (References Carhart.)

Texas Historical Commission. Texas Historic Sites Atlas. “Kreische, Henry L., Brewery and House.”,+Henry+L.,+Brewery+and+House&class=2002;&form_display=SUMM

Watts, Marie. “Dr. John Wesley Carhart Minister, Author, Inventor, and Physician.” [No date. One of several histories written by members of the Fayette County Historical Commission. They first appeared in the weekly column, "Footprints of Fayette, published in local newspapers.] Accessed October 19, 2014, from: