Nicholas Biddle: "Men Dressed in Squars Clothes", 1804-10

The Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expeditions contains diary notes by Nicholas Biddle which report of the Mandan Indians that on Saturday, December 22, 1804:

a number of Squars & men Dressed in Squars Clothes Came with Corn to Sell to the men for little things...[1]

Notes by Biddle, dating to April 1810, among the letters and documents of the Lewis and Clark expedition, report:

Among Minitarees if a boy shows any symptoms of effeminacy or girlish inclinations he is put among the girls, dressed in their way, brought up with them, & sometimes married to men. They submit as women to all the duties of a wife. I have seen them-the French call them Birdashes.[2]


Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976) pg. 292.

  1. [Nicholas Biddle], Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expeditions, 1804-1806 ... ed. Reuben Gold Thwaites, 8 vols. (N.Y. Dodd. Mead. 1904-05), vol. I. p. 239. Another edition: [Nicholas Biddle], Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents, 1783-1854, ed. Donald Jackson (Urbana: University of Illinois, 1962), p. 531.