FBI and Homosexuality: 2000-2009

Kessler, Ronald. The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002).

Morris, III, Charles E. "Pink herring & the fourth persona: J. Edgar Hoover's sex crime panic". Quarterly Journal of Speech, Volume 88, Issue 2, 2002, pages 228-244. Abstract: During the 1930s, sexuality significantly shaped J. Edgar Hoover's public discourse. In response to a homosexual panic that plagued the nation's men and endangered his public persona, Hoover engaged in a passing performance. His masking rhetoric employed the pink herring, a tactic that manipulated a moral panic about sex crime to stabilize gender and sexual norms, divert attention from his private life, and silence an invisible audience that I term the fourth persona.

Johnson, David K. The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004).

Powers, Richard Gid. Broken: The Troubled Past and the Uncertain Future of the FBI (New York: Free Press, 2004). From page 242: "the only evidence I know that their [Hoover's and Tolson's] relationship might have gone beyond a very close friendship is a series of snapshots I found among Hoover's papers of Tolson sleeping in his pajamas. All indications are that they were taken by Hoover, and that he kept them with his intimate family and private records. Most men would find it an inexcusable invasion of privacy to have another man photograph him while asleep -- unless there were [sic] a relationship more intimate than a conventional male friendship."

Research request: full citations to source of those photos?

Potter, "Queer" (2006) says that in this book Powers excludes heterosexuality as a possibility for Hoover, "saying that archival photographs of Tolson in his pajamas are a compelling statement about Hoover’s sexuality. Potter, "Queer" (2006), pages 367, citing Powers, Broken, pages 241–42.

Price, David H. Threatening Anthropology : McCarthyism and the FBI's Surveillance of Activist Anthropologists. Durham : Duke University Press, 2004. [On Hoover as blackmailer who used data about politicians' sexual lives, at the same time as he had a long, intimate relationship with a man, and was rumored to be homosexual: 15. A "secondhand story from a source in Knoxvile (Tennessee) regarding an unknown individual making unwanted homosexual advanceds toward (anthroplogist Marshall) Newman in the 1930s when he'd work(ed) for the Tennessee Valley Authority": 180. In "1938-1938 she (anthroplogist Ruth Landes) studied . . . Brazilian homosexual-led 'cults' known as candomble": 230; rumors that Landes had sold her sexual services to black informants in Brazil: 231. Re the FBI's probable investiation of anthropologist Cora Du Bois' s long-term companion and housemate Jeanne Taylor (discussed in various sources cited): 296. Also search "sexual" for Price's additional data on FBI surveilance.]

2004, April 12
Hack, Richard. Puppetmaster: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover [Paperback 2007]

2004, June
Carter, David. Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked the Gay Revolution. New York: St. Martins Press, June 2004. Reports that Edward Murphy, a convicted criminal and homosexual connected to the Mafia, and associated with or the leader of a blackmail ring that preyed on homosexuals, claimed in a 1978 article that the Mafia had evidence and photos providing evidence of homosexual activity on the part of J. Edgar Hoover as well as Clyde Tolson.

The source is Arthur Bell. "Skull Murphy: The Gay Double Agent". Village Voice May 1978, pages 1, 17-19.

Another major source that connects Murphy and the FBI are Carter's interview with John Paul Ranieri, dated March 17, 24, 30, 1998.

Carter also cites Murray Weiss, "J. Edgar's Slip Was Showing". New York Post, February 11, 1993.

Carter also mentions specific issues of the Mattachine Newsletter attacking Murphy.

Friedman, Andrea. “The Smearing of Joe McCarthy: The Lavender Scare, Gossip and Cold War Politics,” American Quarterly 57, no. 4 (2005): 1105–29.

Tug Yourgrau. The Great Pink Scare
Documentary film about scholars Newton Arvin, Joel Dorius, and Ned Spofford, caught up and terrorized by a homosexual pornography hysteria in Northampton, MA. {Any FBI involvement?]

2006, September
Gallo, Marcia M. Different Daughters: A History of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Rise of the Lesbian Rights Movement. Seal Press (September 21, 2006). ISBN-10: 0786716347. ISBN-13: 978-0786716340.

Phyllis Lyon and Del Martin receive FBI file, April 1981, on surveillance of the Daughters of Bilitis starting in 1956 (pages xvii, xix).

In 1977, San Francisco Examiner reports that a CIA agent, Dr. David Rhodes, had secretly attended the first national convention of DOB in 1960 (page xviii, citing Glennda Chui. "How FBI Spied on S.F. Gays." San Francisco Chronicle, September 20, 1982.

FBI surveillance of DOB, Los Angeles, 1957 (page xix).

Citizens for Decent Literature to FBI about DOB, 1964 (page xix).

Potter, Claire Bond. "Queer Hoover: Sex, Lies, and Political History". Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 15, No. 3, September 2006, pages ???-???.

Potter says: "perverted sex is a constant theme bordering on obsession in Hoover’s own writing about criminals, Communists, and social equality movements. If his personal sex life is poorly documented, evidence that he disliked and distrusted what he perceived as sexual deviance is ample. He believed all criminals were sexual perverts. He loathed interracial sex and the communal sexual practices on the left and in the civil rights movement. From early on he culled pornography from surveillance dossiers and kept it in his private files, he used sexual evidence to intimidate political opponents, and he displayed a visceral, public hatred for women whose actions or beliefs he saw as undermining a national security agenda . . . . (page 365, citing Jeffreys, 67).

"Hoover’s history as a political figure cannot be separated from the history of sexuality. Gay or not, the greatest privilege of Hoover’s life was one he worked to deny to every other citizen of the United States: the right to be free of surveillance and keep one’s own secrets.

Potter, "Queer", 378.

Leik, Karen Elizabeth Leick and Claire A. Culleton, eds. Modernism on File: Modern Writers, Artists, and the FBI: 1920-1950. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2007.

Baldwin, James, page 28; Hemingway, Ernest pages 67-68; Hoover, J. Edgar, page 68; Mann, Erika, page 224, 235; Mann, Klaus, pages 224, 232; McKay, Claude, page 12; Rukeyser, Muriel, many pages.

2007, October 11
FBi Releases Files on W. Dorr Legg to Douglas Charles. See: http://personal.psu.edu/dmc166/Mattachine%20Founders%20FBI/W.%20Dorr%20Legg%20FBi%20file.pdf

2008, April 30
FBI Releases Files on Harry Hay to Douglas Charles. See: http://personal.psu.edu/dmc166/Mattachine%20Founders%20FBI/Harry%20Hay%20FBI%20File.pdf

2009, February 20
Associated Press: "'GAY' PROBE OF LBJ AIDE" [Jack Valenti in 1960s] . New York Post. February 20, 2009. This says story was first reported in Washington Post on February 19, 2009.