Introduction to the Direct Action Project

LGBT Direct Action Bibliography, Chronology, and Inventory, 1965-73

Marc Stein

March 2023

            Social movements have long engaged in direct action protests, including demonstrations, marches, parades, pickets, riots, and sit-ins. These are spectacular and embodied events, often drawing extensive public attention, serving expressive and strategic purposes, and contributing to social and political change. In 1965, influenced most directly by the African American civil rights movement, U.S. LGBT activists began a sustained period of direct action that lasted for more than a decade. Highly creative, emotionally powerful, and politically inspiring, LGBT direct action protests challenged anti-LGBT policies and practices while also breaching boundaries between the private and public, the invisible and visible, and the silent and spoken. Scholars have produced in-depth studies of a small number of these actions, including the Dewey’s sit-in (1965), the Annual Reminders at Independence Hall (1965-69), the Compton’s Cafeteria riot (1966), the Stonewall riots (1969), the Congress to Unite Women protest (1970), and the first “gay pride” marches (1970). The vast majority of LGBT direct action protests, however, have not been researched extensively or fully analyzed. This bibliography, chronology, and inventory, covering more than 600 unique events from 1965 to 1973, is meant to encourage further research on the broad and diverse history of LGBT direct action.

            The LGBT Direct Action Bibliography, Chronology, and Inventory builds on the work I completed for two of my recent books: The Stonewall Riots: A Documentary History (NYU Press, 2019) and Rethinking the Gay and Lesbian Movement, 2nd edition (Routledge, 2023). Several research assistants, including Mario Burrus and Adam Joseph Nichols, worked on this project under my supervision; Dylan Weir helped compile, quantify, and analyze the results. Work is underway to extend this project to cover 1974-76. This is a work in progress and I would welcome additions and corrections, which can be sent to me at

Chronology, Geography, and Highlights

            For the nine years covered in this inventory, we have identified 646 direct action events (averaging 72 per year), though the number falls to 409 if protests lasting for more than a single day and coordinated protests that occurred in multiple locations are each counted once. Only direct action protests documented in mainstream, alternative, or LGBT print media are included here; we cite more than 1,800 media sources. Media outlets routinely disagree when quantifying the number of participants in direct action protests, but the minimum numbers used by the sources listed here total more than 228,000 participants; the number would be lower if individuals who participated in more than one protest were each counted only once. LGBT direct action protests in this period had an average of 353 participants and occurred, on average, every five days. The sources listed here indicate that at least 195 protesters were arrested; again, the number would be lower if individuals arrested more than once were each counted only once.

            The inventory both reinforces and challenges popular beliefs about the chronology and geography of LGBT direct action in the United States. For the nine-year period, we have documented protests in 20 states and the District of Columbia, challenging the notion that these only occurred in New York, California, and a few other states. For 1965 through May 1969, we have identified 91 direct action protests (averaging 1 every 17 days) in four states and the District of Columbia; these involved 995-1,696 participants. Beginning in April 1969 in San Francisco (not June in New York, as is commonly believed), the number and frequency of LGBT direct action protests increased dramatically. From August 1968 through March 1969, there were none, but there were 64 in April, May, and June 1969. The number rose from 6 in 1968 (averaging 1 every 61 days) to 116 in 1969 (averaging 1 every 3 days) and 174 in 1970 (averaging 1 every 2.1 days). After Stonewall, LGBT direct action also expanded in terms of participant numbers and geographic scope––for 1970, our sources count 11,935-61,733 participants in 12 cities across 7 states and Washington, D.C.

            In quantitative terms, 1970 proved to be the highwater mark of LGBT direct action during these nine years. The number of direct actions declined steadily afterwards: there were 137 in 1971 (1 every 2.7 days), 108 in 1972 (1 every 3.5 days), and 77 in 1973 (1 every 4.8 days). In terms of participation numbers and geographic scope, however, LGBT direct action continued to expand and never returned to pre-Stonewall levels, with protests in more and more cities, across more and more states, and featuring consistently large numbers of participants. Our sources document actions in 13 states with 20,000-29,000 participants in 1971, 17 states with 15,000-60,000 participants in 1972, and 14 states with 11,000-70,000 participants in 1973.

            The following list of the top ten busiest months for unique actions, excluding pride events, highlights both the significance of 1970 and the broader chronological range of post-Stonewall LGBT direct action:

  1. May 1970: 16 actions
  2. April 1970: 13 actions
  3. October 1970: 11 actions
  4. November 1971: 11 actions
  5. October 1969: 10 actions
  6. January 1972: 10 actions
  7. April 1972: 10 actions
  8. March 1970: 9 actions
  9. August 1970: 9 actions
  10. January 1970; March, October, and December 1971; May 1972; October 1973: 8 actions

            While LGBT direct action protests expanded to more and more states during this nine-year period, the vast majority occurred in 6 cities in 5 states: San Francisco (148); New York City (142); Los Angeles (93); Washington, D.C. (43); Chicago (40); and Philadelphia (33). Other significant sites included Berkeley (21), Minneapolis (13), Miami (11), Detroit (9), and New Orleans (7). In total, the movement organized and participated in direct action protests in 54 cities and towns during this period. Of those 54, 22 were the locations of only 1 direct action and another 11 featured only 2. The following is a comprehensive list of the cities and towns where we have documented LGBT direct action protests from 1965 through 1973:

  1. San Francisco, CA (148)
  2. New York City, NY (142)
  3. Los Angeles, CA (93)
  4. Washington, D.C. (43)
  5. Chicago, IL (40)
  6. Philadelphia, PA (33)
  7. Berkeley, CA (21)
  8. Kern River, CA (13)
  9. Minneapolis, MN (13)
  10. Miami, FL (11)
  11. Detroit, MI (9)
  12. New Orleans, LA (7)
  13. Boston, MA (6)
  14. Ann Arbor, MI (5)
  15. Seattle, WA (4)
  16. Atlanta, GA (3)
  17. Hauppauge, NY (3)
  18. Sacramento, CA (3)
  19. Columbus, OH (3)
  20. Albany, NY (2)
  21. Bridgeport, CT (2)
  22. Buffalo, NY (2)
  23. Burbank, CA (2)
  24. Dallas, TX (2)
  25. Denver, CO (2)
  26. Fullerton, CA (2)
  27. Louisville, KY (2)
  28. Provincetown, MA (2)
  29. Vacaville, CA (2)
  30. Wellesley, MA (2)
  31. Lansing, MI (2)
  32. Anaheim, CA (1)
  33. Arlington, VA (1)
  34. Cincinnati, OH (1)
  35. Collingswood, NJ (1)
  36. Bloomfield Hills, MI (1)
  37. Gainesville, FL (1)
  38. Hackensack, NJ (1)
  39. Hartford, CT (1)
  40. Hayward, CA (1)
  41. Ithaca, NY (1)
  42. Lynnwood, WA (1)
  43. New Hanover, NJ (1)
  44. Newtown, PA (1)
  45. Oakland, CA (1)
  46. Pittsburgh, PA (1)
  47. Portland, OR (1)
  48. Riverhead, NY (1)
  49. Rochester, NY (1)
  50. San Diego, CA (1)
  51. San Jose, CA (1)
  52. Southfield, MI (1)
  53. St. Paul, MN (1)
  54. Tucson, AZ (1)

            As noted above, over the course of the nine-year period, LGBT direct action protests occurred in 20 states and the District of Columbia; most of the states were coastal and/or featured large cities. Beyond the East and West coasts, the four states with the largest numbers had major cities: Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Detroit, Michigan; and New Orleans, Louisiana. The following is a full list of the states/districts where we have identified LGBT direct action protests:

  1. California (289)
  2. New York (151)
  3. District of Columbia (43)
  4. Illinois (40)
  5. Pennsylvania (35)
  6. Michigan (18)
  7. Minnesota (14)
  8. Florida (12)
  9. Massachusetts (10)
  10. Louisiana (7)
  11. Washington (5)
  12. Ohio (4)
  13. New Jersey (3)
  14. Connecticut (3)
  15. Georgia (3)
  16. Kentucky (2)
  17. Texas (2)
  18. Colorado (2)
  19. Virginia (1)
  20. Arizona (1)
  21. Oregon (1)

            In terms of participation numbers, the top ten actions were all pride events, as listed below, but note that media reports of numbers diverged greatly, in part because of disagreements about whom to count as, and whether to count, spectators:

  1. 24 June 1973: San Francisco Pride, 2,000-40,000 participants
  2. 28 June 1970: Los Angeles Pride, 1,200-30,000 participants
  3. 25 June 1972: San Francisco Pride, 1,000-25,000 participants
  4. 24 June 1973: New York Pride, 3,000-20,000 participants
  5. 28 June 1970: New York Pride, 2,000-20,000 participants
  6. 27 June 1971: New York Pride, 5,000-10,000 participants
  7. 25 June 1972: New York Pride, 3,500-10,000 participants
  8. 11 June 1972: Philadelphia Pride, 2,500-10,000 participants
  9. 25 June 1972: Los Angeles Pride, 400-5,000 participants
  10. 24 June 1973: Chicago Pride, 2,000-3,000 participants

            Excluding pride events, the ten direct actions that featured the largest number of participants, most of which have received limited scholarly attention, were as follows:

  1. 14 March 1971: March on the New York State Capitol in Albany by the Tri-Cities Gay Liberation Front and other groups, 1000-3000 participants
  2. 28 June-3 July 1969: LGBT riots to protest a police raid on the Stonewall Inn in New York, 500-3000 participants
  3. 5 April 1970: Gay Liberation Front Los Angeles “Gay-In” at Griffith Park, 2000 participants
  4. 29-30 August 1970: Gay Activists Alliance New York and Gay Liberation Front New York demonstration and march from Times Square to the Women’s House of Detention to protest police harassment and violence, 2000 participants
  5. 25 August: Dyke Separatists, GAA Lesbians, and other feminist groups march and rally for women’s rights in New York, 2000 participants
  6. 30 May 1970: Gay Liberation Front Los Angeles “Gay-In” at Griffith Park, 500-1000 participants
  7. 25 July 1971: Gay Activists Alliance New York march and demonstration in Greenwich Village to protest police raids on gay bars, 1000 participants
  8. 3 October 1971: Gay Activists Alliance New York march to home of City Councilman Saul Sharison, 500-1000 participants
  9. 7-15 April 1972: LGBT march for state law reform from New York City to Albany and demonstration at state capitol, 400-1000 participants
  10. 8 March 1970: Gay Activists Alliance New York and Gay Liberation Front New York demonstration and march against police harassment and violence, 200-700 participants

            The largest numbers of arrests occurred at the following direct action protests:

  1. 28 June-3 July 1969: LGBT riots to protest a police raid on the Stonewall Inn in New York, 21-22 arrests
  2. 18-23 August 1972: LGBT demonstrations at Republican Party National Convention in Miami, 20 arrests
  3. 31 October 1969: Committee for Homosexual Freedom and Gay Liberation Front San Francisco demonstration against anti-LGBT bias at San Francisco Examiner and sit-in to protest police violence at City Hall, 15 arrests
  4. 28 November 1970: Gay Liberation Front protest at Zephyr Restaurant during Black Panthers Revolutionary People’s Constitutional Convention in DC, 12 arrests
  5. 3 September 1971: Kalos Society demonstration against anti-lesbian discrimination at LaRosa Park West bar in Hartford, 10 arrests
  6. 3 October 1971: Gay Activists Alliance New York march to home of City Councilman Saul Sharison, 6-10 arrests
  7. 30 April 1973: Gay Activists Alliance New York demonstration at City Council meeting, 10 arrests
  8. 21-25 June 1971: Gay Activists Alliance New York, Daughters of Bilitis New York, and RL-NY demonstrations at City Hall, 9 arrests
  9. 25-26 January 1972: Gay Activists Alliance New York sit-in at Lindsay presidential campaign headquarters, 8 arrests
  10. 21 June 1970: “Gay-In” in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, 7 arrests

            The 10 most sustained actions, including consecutive and non-consecutive days of protest, were as follows:

  1. 9 April-26 June 1969: Committee for Homosexual Freedom demonstrations against the firing of an openly gay employee at States Steamship Company in San Francisco, 49 days
  2. 25 July-15 August 1970: Society for Individual Rights, Tavern Guild, and Gay Liberation Front San Francisco daily demonstrations against bathroom arrests at Macy’s, 21 days
  3. 29 August-10 September 1970: Gay “Camp-In” at Yokut Group Camp on the Kern River in California, 13 days
  4. 15 October-30 November 1971: Gay Liberation Front DC, Gay Activistis Alliance DC, MSW, and MCC-DC demonstrations against anti-trans, racist, and sexist discrimination at Lost and Found in DC, 12 days
  5. 24 April – 4 May 1971: LGBT participation in antiwar demonstrations in DC, 11 days
  6. 28 June-7 July 1970: Ten-day gay vigil and fast at Federal Building in Los Angeles, 10 days
  7. 7-15 April 1972: LGBT march for state law reform from New York City to Albany and demonstration at state capitol, 9 days
  8. 17-24 December 1969: Gay Liberation Front New York peace vigil at Women’s House of Detention, 8 days
  9. 7-15 August 1970: Chicago Gay Liberation daily demonstrations against antigay discrimination at Astro Restaurant, 8 days
  10. 17-24 December 1969: Gay Community Alliance, HELP, and MCC demonstrations against police brutality in Los Angeles, 8 days

            The 5 actions sustained over the longest period of time were as follows:

  1. 4 July 1965-1969: Annual Reminder demonstrations in Philadelphia, annual for 5 years
  2. 7 February 1970- 25 November 1971: Demonstrations against discrimation at Barney's Beanery, 1 year 9 months
  3. 9 April-26 June, 2 July-6 August 1969: Committee for Homosexual Freedom demonstrations against the firing of an openly gay employee at States Steamship Company in San Francisco, 4 months
  4. 15 October-30 November: Demonstrations at Lost and Found in DC, 1.5 months
  5. 25 July-15 August: Society for Individual Rights, Tavern Guild, and Gay Liberation Front San Francisco daily demonstrations against bathroom arrests at Macy’s, 3 weeks


            The targets of LGBT direct action were diverse, but we have identified several noteworthy patterns. Using fourteen categories and counting each protest more than once if more than one category was applicable, our sources indicate that businesses were the most common targets of LGBT direct action. These included bars, restaurants, department stores, and public utilities, which were criticized for employment discrimination, denials of service, mistreatment of patrons, sexual censorship, and discriminatory practices affecting women, people of color, and trans people in particular. The number of business targets would have been even greater if we had counted many of the media targets as businesses, which they were. The second most frequent targets of LGBT direct action were national, state, and local government policies; the third most frequent were police policies and practices. Pride events, marches, parades, and protests were fourth. LGBT targets, including businesses and political organizations, were fifth. The full range of targets were as follows:

  1. Businesses (221)
  2. National, state, and local government policies and buildings, including courts (112)
  3. Police and policing (84)
  4. Pride events, marches, parades, and protests (78)
  5. LGBT targets, including organizations and businesses (64)
  6. Electoral politics, including politicians, public officials, and political parties (57)
  7. Military, militarism, and war (53)
  8. Media (including newspapers, magazines, film, radio, television), arts, and culture (51)
  9. Universities, colleges, schools, and educational institutions (44)
  10. Science, medicine, psychology, and psychiatry (29)
  11. Prisons and jails (25)
  12. Gay-ins and other LGBT gatherings (23)
  13. Religion, religious institutions, and religious policies (21)
  14. Miscellaneous (10)

            Businesses: Some of the earliest targets of direct action protests were businesses: Dewey’s restaurant in Philadelphia (1965); Julius bar in New York (1966); Compton’s Cafeteria in San Francisco (twice in 1966); the Black Cat bar in Los Angeles (1966); the Redd Foxx Club in Los Angeles (1967); and the Patch bar in Los Angeles (1968). From 14 business-oriented protests in 1965-68 the number grew significantly to 74 in 1969 before falling to 59, 32, 19, and 23 in the next four years.

            Most of the business targets in 1969 were in San Francisco: States Steamship Company (the site of dozens of protests), Tower Records, Funland, Safeway supermarket, Delta Airlines, Western Airlines, Tom Cat Theater, Trap bar, and Greyhound Bus. Other 1969 targets included States Steamship in Los Angeles (in solidarity with the San Francisco protests) and the Stonewall Inn in New York.

            In 1970, there was a wave of business-oriented protests in Los Angeles; targets included Barney’s Beanery, the Park Theater, May department store, and a set of bars: Hayloft, Sewers of Paris, Farm, New Generation, Stampede, and Hub. Business targets elsewhere included the Household Finance Co., Gold Rail bar, and Finale restaurant in New York; Normandy bar and Astro restaurant in Chicago; Honda and Macy’s in San Francisco; Queen Bee bar in Louisville; White Horse Inn in Berkeley; Morrie’s bar in Ithaca; and Zephyr restaurant in Washington, D.C.

            Most of the 1971 business targets were again located in three cities: Fidelifacts, Clancy’s bar, Christopher’s End bar, and Kooky’s bar in New York; the Stud bar, Mark Hopkins Hotel, Bank of America, Pacific Telephone, and Hilton Hotel in San Francisco; and a set of bookstores, Lillian’s restaurant, and Barney’s Beanery in Los Angeles. Once again, most of these were bars and restaurants, as were most of the 1971 business targets located elsewhere: Plus One bar and Lost and Found bar in Washington, D.C.; LaRosa Park West bar in Hartford; Hudson’s department store in Detroit; and Poodle bar in Minneapolis.

            In 1972 and 1973, there were no business targets in Los Angeles and fewer in San Francisco (San Francisco Hotel, Hilton Hotel, and Pacific Telephone), but there again was a significant number in New York: Park West Village, Hilton Hotel, Taxi Commission, Bandy’s bar, Salty Dog bar, Barney Google’s bar, 162 Spring Street bar and Rainbow Grill restaurant. Other business targets in 1972 and 1973 included Hudson’s department store in Detroit; Poodle bar and Northwestern Bell in Minneapolis; Pizza Hut in Fullerton (CA); Rollaway Link in Lynwood (WA); Stonewall bar in Tucson; Steps bar in Philadelphia; Rubaiyst bar/restaurant in Ann Arbor; and Merchandise Mart in Chicago.

            Government Buildings and Policies: Compared to the yearly numbers for business-oriented protests, which peaked in 1969 and then declined, the numbers for government-oriented protests were relatively steady: 19 in 1965-68, then 12, 19, 28, and 26 in the next four years before falling to 8 in 1973. Significantly, direct action protesters returned to some of the same iconic government buildings multiple times, and many of these were federal buildings, state capitols, city halls, and local courthouses. Pre-Stonewall building targets included the White House 5 times, Independence Hall 4 times, and the United Nations, U.S. Civil Service Commission, U.S. State Department, Pentagon, Federal Building in San Francisco, and California State Fair in Sacramento. Post-Stonewall targets in 1969 included the Federal Building and City Hall in San Francisco; Independence Hall in Philadelphia; the California State Building in Los Angeles; and City Hall in New York.

            In 1970, government targets included City Hall and the Criminal Court building in New York and the Federal Building in Los Angeles. In 1971 they included City Hall in New Orleans; the Board of Education, City Clerk’s Office, and City Hall in New York; the State Capitol in Albany, New York; the Federal Building and California Civil Service office in San Francisco; the County Medical Center in Los Angeles; the State Capitol in Sacramento; the Federal Building in Chicago; the Ohio State House in Columbus; City Hall in Bridgeport, Connecticut; the Suffolk County Courthouse and District Attorney’s office in New York; and the courthouse in Hauppage, New York. In 1972, government targets included the Iwo Jima Memorial in Arlington, Virginia; the New York State Association of City Councils in Buffalo; City Hall and the home of the District Attorney in New York; the Federal Building in San Francisco; the State Capitol in Albany; the State Capitol in Columbus, Ohio; the Bergen County Courthouse in Hackensack, New Jersey; and the Board of Education in Chicago. In 1973, LGBT direct action returned to Independence Hall in Philadelphia while also targetting City Council in New York; City Hall in Philadelphia; City Hall in Rochester, New York, and the State Capitol in Lansing, Michigan. Protests at government buildings commonly focused on federal civil service, immigration, and military policies, along with state sodomy laws, state liquor licensing laws, local cross-dressing laws, and local policing.

            Police and Policing: Direct action protests that targetted the police and policing began in the 1960s, peaked in 1970, and then declined significantly in the next three years. There were 13 protests against the police in the 1965-69 era, 39 in 1970, and 19, 5, and 8 in the next three years. Protesters in the 1960s challenged police practices at Compton’s Cafeteria and the San Francisco Examiner in San Francisco; the Black Cat and Patch bars in Los Angeles; Aquatic Park in Berkeley; and the Stonewall Inn in New York. LGBT direct action protesters continued to target police practices in these four cities in subsequent years, but expanded their targets in 1970 to Chicago; in 1971 to Bridgeport, Connecticut; Hauppauge, New York; Riverhead, New York; and Gainesville, Florida; and in 1972 and 1973 to Arlington, Virginia; Washington, D.C.; Detroit; and Seattle.

            Pride: LGBT people began to commemorate the 1969 Stonewall rebellion in 1970; for that year we have identified 17 pride marches, parades, and protests in Chicago, San Francisco, New York, Los Angeles, and Provincetown. The number grew to 23 in 1971 and 23 in 1972 before falling back to 15 in 1973. New locations in 1971 included Bridgeport, Connecticut; Sacramento; Boston; and San Jose. In 1972 new locations included Washington, D.C.; Columbus; Miami Beach; Philadelphia; Hackensack, New Jersey; Dallas; Atlanta; and Detroit. In 1973, new locations included Cincinnati; Pittsburgh; Berkeley; Minneapolis; and Portland, OR. In total, there were pride marches, parades, and protests in 22 cities from 1970 to 1973. Of these, 6 were in the Midwest (if the boundaries of that region are extended to include Pittsburgh); 6 were in California and Oregon; 4 were in the New York-to-D.C. corridor; 3 were in New England; and 3 were in the South.

            LGBT Businesses and Organizations: LGBT direct action protests against LGBT businesses and organizations began with 3 initial targets in 1966–1968 (Julius bar in New York and the Black Cat and Patch bars in Los Angeles). They continued with 8 in 1969 (including the Stonewall Inn in New York and the Society for Individual Rights and the Tavern Guild in San Francisco), peaked at 23 in 1970 and 19 in 1971, and then fell to 3 in 1972 and 8 in 1973. Targets in 1970 included screenings of the film Boys in the Band; LGBT bars and theaters in Chicago, Los Angeles, Louisville, and Berkeley; and the North American Conference of Homophile Organizations convention in San Francisco. Targets in 1971 included LGBT bars in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; and New York, along with the Society for Individual Rights and Tavern Guild in San Francisco. Targets in 1972 and 1973 included the Society for Individual Rights in San Francisco and LGBT bars in Tucson, Detroit, Ann Arbor, and Philadelphia.

            Electoral Politics: LGBT direct action activists began targetting electoral politics in 1969, when they disrupted two events featuring New York City mayoral candidates. The number of protests grew from 2 in 1969 to 12 in 1970 and 7 in 1971 before peaking at 33 in 1972 and then falling back to 3 in 1973. The peak in 1972 corresponds to the national elections that year. The protests in 1970 focused on U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew (at an appearance in Louisville), New York State Governor Nelson Rockefeller, New York State gubernatorial candidates, New York City Mayor John Lindsay, New York City Council members, and the New York State Republican Committee. In 1971 they targeted U.S. President Richard Nixon (at an appearance in Chicago); a New York City Council member; and the two main Philadelphia mayoral candidates. In 1972, LGBT direct action protests targetted U.S. President Richard Nixon’s campaign headquarters and a Nixon campaign fundraising event, both in Philadelphia; U.S. Vice President Agnew (at an appearance in Minneapolis), and a set of U.S. presidential and vice-presidential candidates, including former U.S. Vice President Hubert Humphrey, U.S. Vice Presidential candidate Sargent Shriver, U.S. Senator George McGovern, U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie, and Mayor Lindsay. In that year LGBT direct action protesters also targetted an Illinois gubernatorial candidate, the Pennsylvania Republican State Committee, the New York State Senate Majority Leader, the New York City District Attorney, a New York City Council member, and the Democratic and Republican Party National Conventions in Miami. Targets in 1973 included Philadephia District Attorney Arlen Specter and the Republican members of the Ann Arbor City Council.

            Military, Militarism, and War: LGBT direct action protests against the military, militarism, and war began in 1965-66, when there were 7, including 1 at the Pentagon in 1965 and 5 at nationally-coordinated protests on Armed Forces Day in 1966. Some of the government-oriented protests discussed above for 1965-68 referenced antigay military policies as well. Military-oriented protests resumed in 1969, when there were 7 (in San Francisco, Berkeley, New York, and Washington, D.C., and at Fort Dix in New Jersey). While the pre-1969 protests focused on antigay military policies, most of the 1969 and post-1969 ones were antiwar demonstrations and marches. The total numbers grew to 15 in 1970 and 17 in 1971 before falling to 5 in 1972 and 2 in 1973. Locations in 1970 included Chicago, New York, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, Seattle, Provincetown, and San Francisco, along with Fort MacArthur in San Pedro, California. Locations in 1971 included Chicago, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, New York. Locations in 1972 and 1973 included New York, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., and San Diego.

            Media, Arts, and Culture: LGBT direct action protests began targetting newspapers in 1966: one protest targeted the Brooklyn Heights Press and one targeted the Chicago Daily News and Chicago Sun-Times. In 1969, there were 4 media-oriented protests; targets included the Village Voice and TIME magazine in New York, the San Francisco Examiner, and the Los Angeles Times. While the earliest LGBT direct action protests focused on newspapers and magazines, this shifted in 1970, when the number of protests against media, arts, and culture targets grew to 12; targets included KGO-TV in San Francisco; screenings of the film Boys in the Band in Los Angeles and Chicago; the Metropolitan Museum of Art, WNEW-TV, Harper’s magazine, the Imperial Theatre, and a New York City Cultural Council event in New York; and a Frank Zappa concert and the Park Theater in Los Angeles. In 1971 there were 6 protests; targets included WLS-TV in Chicago; WIBG in Philadelphia, the Los Angeles Times; and The Bandy Show in New York. There were 7 in 1972; targets included Radio City Music Hall, the New York Daily News, and the Inner Circle dinner in New York; the Academy Awards in Los Angeles; and WPVI-TV in Philadelphia. The number of LGBT protests against media, culture, and arts targets peaked at 20 in 1973; targets included the Jack Paar Show, Inner Circle Dinner, Museum of Natural History, the Dick Cavett Show, and the CBS Evening News in New York; the Marcus Welby, M.D. television program in New York and Los Angeles; The Tonight Show and NBC Studios in Burbank, California; The Mike Douglas Show in Philadelphia; the home of newspaper advice columnist Ann Landers; the Sanford and Son television program in Chicago and New York; the Atlanta Journal Constitution; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art; the premier of the film So Long, Blue Boy in Los Angeles; screenings of the film The Laughing Policeman in San Francisco; and a screening of the film The Boys in the Band at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

            Educational Institutions: From 1 in 1966, 2 in 1968, and 3 in 1969, the number of educationally-oriented direct action protests grew to 18 in 1970 before falling to 8 in 1971, 10 in 1972, and 2 in 1973. The earliest college and university targets were Columbia University and Bucks County Community College (in Pennsylvania) in 1968. The University of California, Berkeley, was targeted repeatedly in 1969 and 1970. Other targets in 1970 included the University of California, Los Angeles; Los Angeles City College; New York University; and Catholic University in Washington, D.C. Targets in 1971 included the University of Chicago; the New York City Board of Education; California State University, Hayward; New York University; the University of Southern California; and LaSalle College in Philadelphia. Targets in 1972 included the University of California, Berkeley; the University of Calfiornia Medical Center in San Francisco; the University of Minnesota; the Chicago Board of Education; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Temple University in Philadelphia. Targets in 1973 included the University of Washington and the University of Michigan.

            Science: LGBT direct action protests began to target science, medicine, psychology, and psychiatry in 1968, when there were protests at a psychiatric panel at Columbia University in New York and the American Medical Association convention in San Francisco. There were no direct action protests against scientific, medical, psychological, and psychiatric targets in 1969, but annual totals were 7, 7, 9, and 4 from 1970 to 1973. Many of these protests targeted the American Psychiatric Association’s annual conventions.

            Targets in 1970 included a psychology lecture at the California Federal Building, the annual Behavioral Modification Conference, and the annual National Association for Mental Health convention in Los Angeles; the APA’s annual convention in San Francisco; the AMA’s annual convention in Chicago; and Bellevue Hospital in New York. Targets in 1971 included psychiatrist David Reuben in Chicago; Century City Medical Plaza, Primal Institute, and Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center in Los Angeles; the APA’s annual convention in Washington, D.C.; and psychiatrist Samual Hadden in Philadelphia. Targets in 1972 included the University of California Medical Center in San Francisco; the California State Medical Facility in Vacaville, California; the Eastern Psychological Association’s annual convention and the Massachusetts Psychological Assocation in Boston; psychiatrist Warren Gadpaille in Minneapolis; and the Association for the Advancement of Behavioral Therapy annual convention in New York. Targets in 1973 included the Los Angeles County Medical Association; the Western Psychological Association annual convention in Anaheim; a University of Washington psychology class; and the Museum of Natural History in New York.

            Gay-Ins: Of the 22 “gay-ins” identified, most took place in California in 1970 and 1971, and many were quite large. They began in April and May 1970 in Griffith Park (Los Angeles), after which there were 2 in June 1970 in Golden Gate Park (San Francisco). In August/September 1970 there was a two-week “camp-in” at Yokut Group Camp on the Kern River in California, followed by further Griffith Park gay-ins in September 1970, April 1971, and June 1971. In 1972, there was a gay-in at Rock Creek Park in Washington, D.C. In 1973, there was a gay-in in Berkeley.

            Religion: LGBT direct action targeted religion, religious institutions, and religious policies 21 times in this nine year period, beginning with an isolated protest at Grace Cathedral (Episcopalian) in San Francisco in 1965. After a single church protest in Berkeley in 1969, the number of religiously-oriented direct action protests grew to 9 in 1970 and 9 in 1971 (primarily in California) before falling to 1 in 1972 and 0 in 1973. The wave of religiously-oriented direct action protests began in February 1970 at the First Congregational Church in Los Angeles and continued later that year at St. Basil Catholic Church, Christ Unity, St. James Episcopal Church, Blessed Sacrament Church, and First Baptist Church, all in Los Angeles; an Easter sunrise service on Mt. Davidson and Grace Cathedral in San Francisco; a Michigan Episcopal Diocese convention in Detroit; Christ Church Cranbrook in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan; a Catholic University conference in Washington, D.C.; and St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York. Targets in 1971 and 1972 included St. Stephen’s Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C.; the Earl Lectures and Pastoral Conference in Berkeley; St. Patrick’s Cathedral and the Young Men’s Christian Association in New York; the Bible Presbyterian Church in Collingswood, New Jersey; the Billy Graham Crusade and St. Sebastian’s Church in Chicago; the Billy Graham Crusade in Oakland, California; and a Catholic cathedral in Sacramento.

            Prisons and Jails: LGBT direct action did not target prisons and jails until after the Stonewall rebellion of 1969. There were 10 protests in the second half of 1969 (all at the Women’s House of Detention in New York); 2 in 1970 (also at the Women’s House of Detention in New York); 4 in 1971 (at the Men’s and Women’s Houses of Detention in New York and in a Chicago march); 7 in 1972 (at a prison conference in Berkeley, the California State Medical Facility in Vacaville, the Sybil Brand Institute for Women in Los Angeles, the Charles St. Jail in Boston, and the Cook County Jail in Chicago); and 2 in 1973 (in a San Francisco march and a Sacramento march).