Timeline: 19th Century

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A Chronology of Public Events in U.S. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Heterosexual History in the Nineteenth Century

A “public event” is defined broadly here as an event known about by three or more people. But most events here are documented by newspaper reports, trial records, and other such public sources of information.

With its users help, OutHistory.org will strive to provide brief descriptions and reliable dates and full and reliable sources for each of the public events listed.

A few entries are provided below, to establish the content and style of this entry.

OPEN ENTRY: This entry is open to collaborative creation by anyone with evidence, citations, and analysis to share, so no particular, named creator is responsible for the accuracy and cogency of its content. Please use this entry's Comment section at the bottom of the page to suggest improvements about which you are unsure. Thanks.

This entry incorporates entries from Timeline: Published U.S. State Appeals Case Reports, 1800-1899 and from other sources provided in the notes.


1801, January 2

The manuscript journals of Alexander Henry and David Thompson describe their Exploration and Adventure among the Indians on the Red, Saskatcheuan, Missouri, and Columbia Rivers, and an entry of this date is titled by its 1897 editor "Swiftness of the One-Eyed Sodomist".[1]

1804, December 22-1810, April

The Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expeditions contain diary notes by Nicholas Biddle which record in 1804 "men Dressed in Squars Clothes" among the Mandan Indians. In 1810 Biddle reports that "Among Minitarees if a boy shows any symptoms of effeminacy . . . he is put among the girls, dressed in that way. brought up with them, & sometimes married to men. He adds: "the French call them Birdashes."[2]


Davis v. State, 3 Har. & J. 154; 3 MD Rep 154 (1810) (attempted "sodomy;' "buggery," man with male "youth," 19). Maryland. The original legal records in this case are available in the state's legal archive: see William S. Davis, Court of Appeals (Judgments, Western Shore). William S. Davis v. State of Maryland, 1806-1810, nos. 267 and 268, MdHR 683-122, 1-62-8-32 (19 pages). Maryland State Archives, Annapolis. Also see: William S. Davis. MSA no. C183, Baltimore County Court of Oyer and Terminer and Gaol Delivery (Docket and Minutes), William S. Davis September 22, October 3, Octaober 9, 1810, Minutes, MdHR 16654, 3-29 (4 pages). Copies in the papers of Jonathan Ned Katz, New York Public Library, Rare Books and Manuscripts Division.

1811, June

Gabriel Franchere's account of events at Fort Astoria, in the Oregon area, reports the appearance of an Indian woman dressed as a male and accompanied by a 'wife'." In 1966 (see), anthropologist Claude E. Schaeffer publishes a detailed account of this cross-dressing woman, titled "The Kutenai Female Berdache".[3]

1812, June

Commonwealth v. Thomas, 1 VA Cases 307 (Gen. Ct.) (1812, Jun 16) ("buggery," man with mare). Virginia.

1822, December

Coburn v. Harwood, 12 Am. Dec. 37; Minor 93 (AL; 1822, Dec) (slander; words charging crime against nature, unspecified). Alabama.


Goodrich v. Woolcott, 3 Cow. 231 (NY; 1824, Aug) (slander; words charging "person of unnatural passions" with "crime against nature" (man with sow) (see also Woolcott v. Goodrich). New York State.

1825, December

Woolcott v. Goodrich, 3 Cow. 714 (NY; 1825, Dec) (slander; words charging "He has been with a sow"). (See also Goodrich v. Woolcott). New York State.

1832, March

United States v. Gallagher, 25 F. Cas. 1241 (1832, Mar) (cites PA law re rape, murder, or attempted "crime against nature"). Pennsylvania.

1846, January

Edgar v. McCutcheon, 9 MO 768 (1846, Jan) (slander, charging man's "carnal knowledge" of mare, using word "fuck"). Missouri.

1847, December

Haywood v. Foster, 6 OH 88 (Westlaw; LEXIS 6 OH 98) (1847, Dec) (slander, charging "unchastity and bestiality" [unspecified]). Ohio.


Plato. The works of Plato: a new and literal version, chiefly from the text of Stallbaum, vol. 1, ed. Henry Cary; vol. 2, ed. Henry Davis; vols. 3-6, ed. George Burges (London: Bohn, 1849-1854). The “Phaedrus” essay is in vol.1 (1854), and the “Banquet”essay is in vol. 3 (1850).

1851, November

Harper v. Delp, 3 IN 225 (1851, Nov) (slander, charging "bestiality" and "buggery," man with cow). Indiana.

1851, November 4

The first use of the term "sodomy" appears in The New York Times, in a list of crimes to be tried in the November session of the New York Court of General Sessions.[4]

1854, July 8

The New York TImes reports that the Rev. Dr. Hamilton, for many years the leading Presbyterian pastor and preacher in Mobile, Ala., has been found guilty of sodomy, and been expelled from the ministry . . . ." That is the second use of the word "sodomy" in the Times. [5]

Image-2Lucy Ann Lobdell.jpeg


Lucy Ann Lobdell self-publishes her Narrative of Lucy Ann Lobdell, the Female Hunter of Delaware and Sullivan Counties (New York), the story of her life as a woman who pushes against the social restraints placed on the actions of women in society.[6]


1855, June, late:

The first edition of Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass is put on sale in at least two stores in New York City, and another in Brooklyn.[7]

1856, February 19

New York Times, "sodomy", February 19, 1856

1856, September 11:

The second edition of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass is registered in the United States Copyright Office.[8]

1856, December

Dial v. Holter, 6 OH St. 228 (1856, Dec) (slander, libel; reference to "sodomy," unspecified, as charge involving "great moral turpitude"). Ohio.

1858, June 2

Ausman v. Veal, 10 IN 355; 71 Am. Dec. 331 (1858, Jun 2) (slander; charging "bestiality," "crime against nature," woman with dog, sex unspecified).


McKean v. Folden, 2 OH Dec. 248 (1859) (slander; words charging "bestiality," "buggery," unspecified). Ohio.


Addie Brown and Rebecca Primus: "No kisses is like youres," 1859-1868 The intimacy of two African American women as documented in letters.

1860, April 18

Estes v. Carter, 10 IA 400 (Sup. Ct.) (1860 Apr 18) (slander; words charging "sodomy," unspecified). Iowa.

1860, May

Publication of the third edition of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass, this edition containing the new "Calamus" section about men's desire for and attraction to men.[9]

1860, December

State v. Gray, 8 Jones (N.C.) 170 (1860, Dec) (reference to "buggery," unspecified, in case of "carnally knowing and abusing an infant female under the age of ten years"). North Carolina.

1860, December 11

Enos v. Sowle, 2 HA 332 (1860, Dec 11) ("sodomy"; man with "boy," youth," age unspecified. Hawaii.

1860, December 14

Vieira v. Sowle, 2 HA 346 (1860, Dec 14) ("sodomy"; man with "boy," age unspecified). Hawaii.

1861, May

Lambertson v. People, (Sup. Ct. Gen. T.) 5 Park. Crim. (N.Y.) 200 (1861, May) ("crime against nature," "buggery," "carnal knowledge," man with man). New York State.

1863, July 25

Fincher's Trades Review: An Advocate of the Rigihts of the Producing Classes, publishes "A Curious Married Couple," discussing the "Thirty-four years of pretended matrimony" of Mary East/James How and her "wife."[10]

1865, April 10

Cleveland v. Detweiler, 18 IA 299 (1865, Apr 10) (slander, charging "sodomy;' woman with dog, sex unspecified). Iowa.


"Aberrations of the Sexual Instinct", in the London Medical Times and Gazette, presents a classic defense of traditional attitudes towards women, giving many examples referring to the United States, illustrating how any unconventional woman, whose behavior deviated from social norms, might be condemned as a "sexual aberration".[11]


State v. Campbell, 29 TX 44; 94 Am. Dec. 251 (1867) ("crime against nature," "sodomy," man with mare). Texas. Original legal records cited as: Warren Campbell . . . v. Texas. October 19, 1866. Filed November 27, 1866. Texas State Archives, Austin. Copy available in the papers of Jonathan Ned Katz, New York Public Library, Rare Books and Manuscripts Division.


Fennel v. State, 32 TX 378 (Sup. Ct.) (1869) ("crime against nature," "sodomy," unspecified). Texas.

1869, October

Ex parte Smith and Keating, 38 CA 702 (1869, Oct) (reference to laws against "rape," "crime against nature," "prostitution," "abortion"). California.

1870, October 24

Haynes v. Ritchey, 30 IA 76; 6 Am. Rep. 642 (1870, Oct 24) (slander, charging "sodomy," "beastility" [sic]). Iowa.


Frazier v. State, 39 TX (Sup. Ct. 1873) (1873) ("crime 'against nature';" unspecified, "sodomy," unspecified). Texas.

1873, January

Commonwealth v. Snow, 111 MA 411 (1873, Jan) ("sodomy," man with boy [implicitly], age unspecified). Massachusets.

1873, January

People v. Murat, 45 CA 281 (1873, Jan) (reference to "assault" with intent "to commit murder, rape, the infamous crime against nature, mayhem, robbery, or grand larceny"). California.

1875, December

Davis v. Brown, 27 OH St. 326 (1875, Dec) (slander, charging "crime against nature," "sodomy," man with unspecified beast). Ohio.

1876, December

State v. Grusso, 28 LA Ann. 952 (1876, Dec) ("crime agaInst nature," man with man). Louisiana.

1878, January

Territory v. Mahaffey, 3 MT 112 (1878, Jan) ("crime against nature," man with "boy," 14). Montana.


Ellen Coit Brown recalls a scandal at Cornel University involving "A woman dressed up in a man's suit" and a "handsome girl student".[12]

1880, January

Melvin v. Weiant, 36 OH St. 184; 38 Am. Rep. 572 (1880, Jan) (slander, charging "sodomy," unspecified). Ohio.

1881 July

People v. Williams, 59 CA 397 (Ct. App. 1881) (1881 Jul) ("crime against nature," "sodomy," man wIth man). California.

1882, January

State v. Williams, 34 LA Ann. 87 (Sup. Ct. 1882) (1882, Jan) ("crime against nature," unspecified). Louisiana.

1883, January:

Dr. P. M. Wise, in a St. Louis medical journal, the Alienist and Neurologist, in an article titled "Case of Sexual Perversion," discusses the life and "lesbian love" of the cross-dressing "Lucy Ann Slater, alias, Rev. Joseph Lobdell" (Lucy Ann Lobdell) in New York State.[13]

1883, April 13

Ex parte Bergen, 19 TX App. 52 (1883, Apr 13) (sodomy," "crime against nature," unspecified). Texas.


Collins v. State, 73 GA 76 (1884) ("bestiality," unspecified). Georgia.


Dr. James G. Kiernan, in an article on "Sexual Perversion", published in the Detroit Lancet, surveys the American, German, and other early writings on sexual relations between members of the same sex, and mentions "the most curious" American report of sex between two women -- the case of "Joe" or Lucy Ann Lobdell and her female lover.[14]

1885, January 31

Cross v. State, 17 TX App. 476 (1885, Jan 31) ("sodomy," "crime against nature," "carnal connection," man with mare). Texas.

1885, February 27

People v. Miller, 66 CA 468; 6 P. 99 (1885, Feb 27) ("crime against nature," man with "boy," 13). California.

1885, June 15

Wood et al. v. State, 47 N.J.L. 180 (1885, Jun 15) (cites NJ law re "murder, manslaughter, sodomy [unspecified], rape, arson, burglary, or robbery"). New Jersey.

1886, April

Foster et al. v. State, 1 OH C.D.; 1 OH Cir. Ct. R. 467 (1886, Apr) ("sodomy," "carnal copulation against nature," three men with man). Ohio.

1887, February 10

Hughes v. Detroit ... Railway Company, 65 MI 10; 31 N.W: 603 (1887, Feb 10) (negligence case, referring to outrage of girls under age seven and to "such crimes against nature"). Michigan.

1887, June 23

Lamb v. State, 10 A. 298 (MD; 1887, Jun 23) ("abortion" referred to as a "crime against nature"). Maryland.


Americans in Württemberg Scandal, 1888/Part 1


The Personal Memoirs of Philip H. Sheridan, Union army general, refers to a pair of female, cross-dressed Civil War soldiers between whom "an intimacy had sprung up".[15]

1888, March 1

Paterson v. State, 50 N.J.L. 421; 14 A. 125 (1888, Mar 1) (cites NJ law referring to "treason, murder, manslaughter, sodomy [unspecified], rape, arson, burglary, robbery, forgery, or larceny," etc.). New Jersey.

1889, February 9

Medis v. Hill, 27 TX App. 194; 11 S.W. 112; 11 Am. St. Rep. 192 (1889, Feb 9) ("sodomy," two men with man). Texas.

1889, April 16

Green v. Superior Court of San Francisco, 78 CA 556; 21 P. 307 (1889, Apr 16) (extortion case referring to persons convicted of "a capital offense, a crime against nature, or ... forgery, perjury," etc.; on appeal, a dissenting CA Supreme Court judge mentions that "At common law, persons convicted of petty larceny and whipped were held incompetent witnesses because infamous, but no matter how infamous the punishment, unless it was inflicted for, or some other species of crimen falsi, infamy did not attach"). California.

1889, December 20

Lefler v. State, 23 N.E. 154 (1889, Dec 20) ("sodomy," man with man). Research Request: state?

1890, May

Louisiana v. Deschamps, 7 So. 703 (1890, May) (reference to "homicide" committed while engaged in a felony "such as rape or sodomy"). Louisiana.

1890, October

State v. Frank, 103 MO 120; 15 S.W. 330 (1890, Oct) (attempted "sodomy," man with dog). Missouri.

1890 December 1

State v. Chandonette, 10 MT 280; 25 P. 438 (1890 Dec 1) ("crime against nature," unspecified). Montana.

1890, December 16

Houston v. Commonwealth, 87 VA 257; 12 S.E. 385 (1890, Dec 16) (robbery case referring to threat of "sodomy"). Virginia.

1891, June 19

Mascolo v. Montesanto, 61 CT 50; 23 Atl. 714; 29 Am. St. Rep. 170 (1891, Jun 19) (civil suit, completed "buggery"; Mascolo, twelve, by Montesanto, fifteen). Connecticut.

1892, January 4

Commonwealth v. Randolph, 146 PA 83; 23 A. 388 (1892, Jan 4) (murder case referring to English decision "that to solicit or make overtures to another to commit sodomy was a crime; but to threaten to accuse another of having made such overtures, was not a threat to charge him with having committed the crime of sodomy"). Pennsylvania.

Kiernan,James. George.jpeg

1892, May:

Dr. James G. Kiernan publishes "Responsibility in Sexual Perversion" in the Chicago Medical Recorder with a footnote that includes the first-known uses in the U.S. of the terms "hetero-sexual" and "homo-sexual" (attributed to Richard von Krafft-Ebing).[16]

Right: James G. Kiernan.[17]

1892, May 13

People v. Graney, 91 MI 646; 52 N.W. 66 (1892, May 13) ("crime against nature," man with man). Michigan.

1892, November 7

Hallinger v. Davis, 146 U.S. 314; 113 S. Ct. 105 (1892, Nov 7) (murder case appealed to U.S. Supreme Court; quotes article of NJ constitution which says that murder "committed in perpetrating or in attempting to perpetrate arson, rape, sodomy, robbery, or burglary, shall be deemed murder in the first degree"). United States. New Jersey.

1892, December 3

People v. Hodgkin, 94 MI 27 (1892, Dec 3) ("sodomy," "buggery," unspecified). Michigan.


Dr. F. E. Daniel, of Austin, Texas, first presents a paper on eugenic castration at an international medico-legal congress held in New York. suggesting "It might be well enough to . . . asexualize all criminals". Originally titled "Should Insane Criminals or Sexual Perverts Be Allowwed to Procreate?" this paper was reprinted in three different medical joruansl, the last in 1912.[18]

1893, February 15

Prindle v. State, 31 TX Cr. R. 551; 21 S.W. 360; 37 Am. St. Rep. 833 (1893, Feb 15) ("sodomy," "crime against nature," man in mouth of "child," age unspecified). Texas. Oral-genital.

1893, February 18

State v. Place, 5 Wash. 773 (1893, Feb.18) (attempted "crime against nature," "sodomy," man with man). Washington.

1893, August 23

People v. Gleason, 99 CA 359; 33 P. 1111 (1893, Aug 23) (incest; refers to "solicitation to commit incest, adultery, or sodomy"). California.

1893, December 6

People v. O'Brien, 26 N.Y.S. 812 (1893, Dec 6) ("crime against nature," man with "boy," 11). New York State.

1894, January 18

The Badger State Banner, published in Black River Falls, Wisconsin, carries the news that Anna Morris, alias Frank Blunt, had been sentenced to a year in prison at Fond du Lac, where Gertrude Field "fell upon the neck of the prisoner and wept for half an hour".[19]

1894, February 28

Commonwealth v. Dill, 160 MA 536, 36 N.E. 472 (Sup. Jd. Ct. 1894) (1894, Feb 28) ("sodomy," "crime against nature," "unnatural and lascivious act," unspecified; man with "another person," sex unspecified). Massachusets.

1894, March 28

A disturbed letter carrier, Guy T. Olmstead, shoots another postman, William L. Clifford, in Chicago, after Clifford rejects Olmstead's advances, and the case is discussed by Dr. Talbot in a report published in 1896 by Havelock Ellis (see below).[20]

1894, May 5

Strange v. State, 33 Tex. Crim. 315; 26 S.W 406 (1894, May 5) (extortion by threat of criminal prosecution for "crime against nature," "sodomy" with beast, unspecified). Texas.

1894, June 4

Hodges v. State, 94 Ga. 593; 19 S.E. 758 (1894, Jun 4) ("sodomy," anal intercourse of "boy," under 14, with "child"). Georgia.

1894, June 26

Thibault v. Sessions and Phipps, 101 MI 279; 59 N.W. 624 (1894, Jun 26) (libel/slander; teacher accused of "sodomy" with students, sex, age unspecified; "bestiality" referenced). Michigan.

1894, August 9

Bradford v. State, 104 AL 68; 53 Am. St. Rep. 24 (1894, Aug 9) ("crime against nature," man with cow). Alabama.

1894, August 11

People v. Moore, 103 Cal. 508; 37 Pac. 510; (1894, Aug 11) ("crime against nature," man with man). California.


Havelock Ellis writes on "Sexual Inversion in Women" in the Alienist and Neurologist, published in Saint Louis, Missouri.[21]


Marc-Andre Raffalovich's article, which first appears in a French medical journal, then is translated the same year and published in the American Journal of Comparative Neurology, argues for the repression of sex between men and women, as well as sex between members of the same sex.[22]

1895, March 9

Green v. State, 29 S.W: 1072 (TX; 1895, Mar 9) ("sodomy," unspecified). Texas.

1895, April 1

Bergemann v. Backer, 157 U.S. 655; 15 S. Ct. 727 (U.S. Supreme Court; 1895, Apr 1) (murder; cites section of New Jersey Crimes Act that murder "committed in perpetrating, or attempting to perpetrate, any arson, rape, sodomy, robbery or burglary, shall be deemed murder of the first degree"). United States.

1895, June 3

State v. Desforges, 47 LA Ann 1167; 17 S. 811 (1895, Jun 3) (attempting to prevent witness from testifying; court quotes Wharton that solicitations to commit a crime "are indictable . . . when they are . . . offences against public decency, as in the case with solicitations to commit sodomy"). Louisiana.

1895, September

Meigs County Court v. Anonymous, 3 OH Dec. 450; 2 OH N.P. 342 (1895, Sep) ("sodomy," man with beast, unspecified). Ohio.

1895, September 19

Williams v. Commonwealth, 22 S.E. 859 (VA; 1895, Sep 19) ("buggery," unspecified, by boy, between 10-12). Virginia.

1895, September 30

People v. Hickey, 41 P. 1027; 109 CA 275 (1895, Sep 30) ("sodomy," man with person, unspecified; sodomy may also involve a beast, unspecified). California.

1895, December

Havelock Ellis publishes "Sexual Inversion with an Analysis of Thirty-three New Cases" in the Medico-Legal Journal (NY).[23],


A detailed medical case history involving the effects of castration on Guy T. Olmstead is sent to Havelock Ellis by Dr. E. S. Talbot of Chicago, and Ellis publishes an initial report in the British Journal of Mental Science.[24]

1896, January 15

Mootry etal. v. State, 41 P. 1027; 109 CA 275 (1896, Jan 15) (murder; cites Medis v. State (see above), in which accused "were jointly tried for sodomy," unspecified here). California.

1896, Jan 22: Wright v. State, 35 TX Crim. 367; 33 S.W. 973 (1896, Jan 22) ("sodomy," unspecified). Texas.

1896, Jan 27: Hawaii v. Parsons, 10 HA 601 (1896, Jan 27) ("sexual intercourse," man with female under age fourteen: cites law referring to "Polygamy," "Adultery," "Fornication," "Incest," "Sodomy," unspecified). "C. G. Parsons argues that the statute under which the charge is made is unconstitutional, for technical reason, and that even if it did set forth the full title of the alleged amended act, namely, 'Chapter XIII, it would still be insufficient (for technical reasons).'" Hawaii.

1896, Feb 12: Hall v. State, 34 S.W: 124 (TX; 1896, Feb 12) ("sodomy," unspecified). Texas.

1896, Apr 29: Lewis v. State, 36 TX Cr. R. 37; 35 S.W. 372; 61 Am. St. Rep. 831 (1896, Apr 29) ("sodomy," anal intercourse, man with woman; accusation of "copulating in the mouth" with same woman). Texas. Oral-genital.

1896, May 13: Little v. State, 35 S.W. 659 (TX; 1896, May 13) ("sodomy," unspecified). Texas.

1896, June [LEXIS]; Nov 17 [WESTLAW]

Singleton v. State, 38 FL 297; 21 So. 21 (1896, Jun ([LEXIS]; Nov 17 [WESTLAW]) (quotes section of FL law "that persons convicted ... of murder, perjury, piracy, forgery, larceny, robbery, arson, sodomy, or buggery shall not be competent witnesses"). Florida.

1896, September 21

Benedict v. People, 23 CO 126; 46 P. 637 (1896, Sep 21 [WESTLAW]; Sep [LEXIS]) ("crime against nature," unspecified). Colorado.

1897, January 19

State v. Smith, 38 S.W. 717 (MO; 1897, Jan 19) (attempted "sodomy or buggery," man with "boy," age unspecified). Missouri.

1897, January 21

Davis v. State, 37 TX Crim. Rep. 47 (1897, Jan 21) (robbery by threatening illegal act; notes: "In England, and perhaps in this country, in the absence of statute, a threatening charge of sodomy [unspecified] is the only threat of prosecution for a crime from which can be inferred the fear necessary to constitute the crime of robbery"). Texas.

1897, March 29

People v. Frey, 112 MI 251; 70 N.W. 548 (1897, Mar 29) (extortion; threat to accuse "sodomy," "bestiality"). Michigan.

1897, May 6

People v.Boyle, 48 P 800; 116 CA 658 (1897, May 6) ("crime against nature," man in mouth of "boy," age unspecified). California. Oral-genital.

1897, June 25

Stewart v. Major, 17 WA 238; 49 E 503 (1897, Jun 25) (libel; quotes section of WA Code referring to "words falsely spoken of any person charging such person with incest or the infamous crime against nature either with mankind or the brute creation"). Washington.

1897, September 7

State v. Dolan, 17 WA 499; 50 P. 472 (1897, Sep 7) (murder; citing WA law referring to "assault with intent to commit murder, rape, the infamous crime against nature, mayhem, robbery, or grand larceny"). Washington.

1897, November 1

Honselman v. People, 168 IL 173, 48 N.W. 304 (1897, Nov 1) ("crime against nature," penis of accuser, fourteen-and-a-half-years-old, in man's mouth). Illinois. Illinois. Oral-genital.

1897, November 24

Jones v. State, 38 TX Crim. 364; 43 S.W: 78 (1897, Nov 24) (libel; Irish men, employed as conductors by the Galveston Railroad, who discriminated against "colored ladies," were called "the descendants of Oscar Wilde [meaning that they commit the crime of sodomy]"; bracketed quote in original report). Texas. Research Request: Original legal records? African American women. The published case report is republished on OutHistory.org. In the same publication also see: W. H. Noble v. The State. No. 1565. Decided November 24, 1897.

1897, December 1

Bresnan v. State, 43 S.W. 111 (TX; 1897, Dec 1) ("sodomy" unspecified, man with man). Texas.

1897, December 20

People v. Wilson, 51 P. 639, 119 CA 384 (1897, Dec 20) (attempted "crime against nature," man, implicitly with boy, age unspecified). California.

1898, February 9

McCray v. State, 8 TX Crim. 609; 44 S.W. 170 (1898, Feb 9) (assault; reference to earlier "sodomy," unspecified, of accused). Texas.

1898, April 20

Hawaii v. Luning, 11 HA 390 (1898, Apr 20) (attempted "sodomy," unspecified). Hawaii.

1898, June ([LEXIS]; Nov 5 ([WESTLAW])

Roberson v. Florida, 40 FL 509; 24 So. 474 (1898, Jun ([LEXIS]; Nov 5 ([WESTLAW]) (cites FL law that "persons who have been convicted in any court . . . of murder, perjury, piracy, forgery, larceny, robbery, arson, sodomy or buggery shall not be competent witnesses"). Florida.

1898, June 8

Red v. State, 39 TX Crim. 414; 46 S.W. 408 (1898, Jun 8) (murder; "Appellant proposed to prove ... that the witness. . .was guilty of incest with his daughter, and was guilty of sodomy [unspecified], and had assaulted the wife of appellant, ... his granddaughter, with intent to rape her"). Texas.

1898 July 8 ([LEXIS]; Sep 28 ([WESTLAW])

Roesel v. New Jersey, 62 N.J.L. 216; 41 A. 408 (1898 Jul 8 ([LEXIS]; Sep 28 ([WESTLAW]) (murder; cites NJ law referring to persons "committing or attempting to commit sodomy, rape, arson, robbery or burglary, or any unlawful act against the peace of this state, of which the probable consequence may be bloodshed"). New Jersey.

1898, November 4

Hawaii v. Edwards, 11 HA 571 (conviction for attempted "sodomy," man with Hawaiian, "Kui" [no sex specified]). Hawaii.

1898, November 30

Darling v. State, 47 S.W 1005 (TX, 1898, Nov 30) ("sodomy," unspecified). Texas.


Dr. H. C. Sharp, physician at the Indiana Reformatory, first institutes a vasectomy program aimed at the "Sterilization of Degenerates" whom, he claims, become of "a more sunny disposition".[25]


Dr. John D. Quackenbos reports to the New Hampshire Medical Society on the use of hypnosis in the treatment of "sexual perversion", saying "It becomes my Christian manhood to act only as the vice-regent of the Almighty."[26]

1899, January 16

Commonwealth v. J., 21 PA Co. Ct. 625 (1899, Jan 16) (attempted "buggery" with young cow). Pennsylvania.

1899, March 6 [WESTLAW]; May 6 [LEXIS]

Brown v. New Jersey, 62 N.J.L. 666; 42 A. 811, 1899, Mar 6 [WESTLAW]; May 6 [LEXIS]) (murder; cites NJ law "that every person indicted for treason, murder or other crimes punishable with death, or for misprision of treason, manslaughter, sodomy, rape, arson, burglary, robbery, or forgery," was allowed to challenge peremptorily twenty jurors). New Jersey.

1899, April 24

Wells v. New England Mutual Life Insurance, 191 PA 207; 43 A. 126 (1899, Apr 24) (abortion; Court quotes its earlier decision that abortion "violates the mysteries of nature in that process by which the human race is propagated. It is a crime against nature which obstructs the fountain of life...."). Pennsylvania.

1899, May 2 [WESTLAW]; Jan Term [case report; LEXIS]

Simmons v. State, 41 FL 316, 25 So. 881 (1899, May 2 [WESTLAW]; Jan Term [case report; LEXIS]) (robbery; cites FL law that "Property obtained by trick or artifice, or by threats of illegal arrest, criminal prosecution, or insinuations against character, except they relate to sodomitical practices, is not taken by 'putting in fear'"). Florida.

1899, May 6

State v. LaForrest, 45 A. 225 (Sup. Ct.); 71 VT 311 (1899, May 6) ("sodomy,"' unspecified). Vermont.

1899, May 31

Hawaii v. Edwards, 2 HA 55 (1899, May 31) ("sodomy," unspecified; argues that 5th and 6th amendments of U.S. Constitution extended to Hawaii at time of Edwards' conviction, August 16,1898, four days after transfer of Hawaiian sovereignty to U.S.). Hawaii.

1899, June 15

Bishop v. Florida, 41 FL 522; 26 So. 703 (1899, Jun 15) (cites FL law: "Persons ... convicted in any court in this State of murder, perjury, piracy, forgery, larceny, robbery, arson, sodomy or buggery shall not be competent witnesses"). Florida.

1899, June 22

State v. Romans, 57 E 819, 21 WA 284 (1899, Jun 22) (attempted "crime against nature," "buggery," man with man). Washington.

1899, October 11

Willson v. State, 53 S.W. 112 (TX; 1899, Oct 11). ("sodomy," unspecified). Texas.

1899, November 29

Peak v. State, 53 S.W. 853 (1899, Nov 29) ("sodomy," unspecified). Research Request: state?

1899, November 29

Stratham v. State, 53 S.W. 847 (1899, Nov 29) ("sodomy," unspecified). Research Request: state?

1899, December 19

Waits v. State, 54 S.W. 1103 (1899, Dec 19) ("sodomy," unspecified). Research Request: state?

Year? Day? Month?

Next Entry?


  1. Excerpted in Katz, Gay American History, page 292, note16 on page ???.
  2. Excerpted inn Katz, Gay American History, page 293, notes 17 and 18, on page ???
  3. Schaeffer's account is excerpted in Katz, Gay American History, pages 293-298, notes 19-31, pages ???.
  4. New York Times: "sodomy", November 4, 1851
  5. Reverend Dr. William Hamilton, Presbyterian Pastor, Mobile, Alabama: 1854
  6. Lucy Ann Lobdell, Narrative of Lucy Ann Lobdell, the Female Hunter of Delaware and Sullivan Counties, N.Y. (N.Y.: Published for the Authoress, 1855; copy in Rare Book Room, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.) See also: http://www.outhistory.org/wiki/Lucy_Ann_Lobdell:_1829-1912#_note-0.
  7. Ivan Marki, “Leaves of Grass, 1855 edition.” In J.R. LeMaster and Donald D. Kummings, eds., Walt Whitman: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland Publishing, 1998), reproduced online at: http://whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/encyclopedia/entry_21.html
  8. Harold Aspiz. "Leaves of Grass, 1856 edition." In: J.R. LeMaster and Donald D. Kummings, eds., Walt Whitman: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland Publishing, 1998), reproduced by permission online at http://www.whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/encyclopedia/entry_22.html
  9. Gregory Eiselein. "Leaves of Grass, 1860 edition". In J.R. LeMaster and Donald D. Kummings, eds., Walt Whitman: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland Publishing, 1998), reproduced by permission and online at: J.R. LeMaster and Donald D. Kummings, eds., Walt Whitman: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland Publishing, 1998), reproduced by permission and online at: http://www.whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/encyclopedia/entry_23.html
  10. Katz, Gay American History, pages 225-226, note ???, page ???
  11. Katz, Gay American History, pages 228-230, note ???, page ???
  12. Katz, Gay American History, pages 230-231, note ???, page ???
  13. P. M. Wise, "Case of Sexual Perversion," Alienist and Neurologist (St. Louis, Missouri.), vol. 4, no. I, pages. 87-91. See: Lucy Ann Lobdell: 1829-1912
  15. Katz, Gay American History, pages 227-228, note ???, page ???
  16. James G. Kiernan, Chicago Medical Recorder, vol. 3, pages 185-210. Discussed and cited in ,Jonathan Ned Katz, The Invention of Heterosexuality (NY: Dutton, 1995), note 1, page 270.
  17. Wikipedia (Poland) at: http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_G._Kiernan
  18. Katz, Gay American History, p. 135, note ???, page ???.
  19. Katz, Gay American History, pages 231-232, note ???, page ???
  20. Katz, Gay American History, pages 140-143, note ???, page ???
  21. Katz, Gay American History, pages 139, note ???, page ???.
  22. Katz, Gay American History, page137-138, note ??? on page ?.
  23. Havelock Ellis, “Sexual Inversion with an Analysis of Thirty-three New Cases” Medico-legal Journal (New York), vol. 13, pages 255-267.
  24. Katz, Gay American History, pages 140-143, note ??? page ???.
  25. Katz, Gay American History, pages 143-144, note ???, page ???
  26. Katz, Gay American History, pages 144-145, note ???, page ???

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