The Dreyfus Affair: October 15, 1894

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Erlanger, Steven. "French Ministry Posts Online Full File on ‘Dreyfus Affair’. New York Times, March 6, 2013.

Includes information about "homosexual liaisons between certain actors in the affair." Source:

Gopnik, Adam. "Trial of the Century: Revisiting the Dreyfus Affair." The New Yorker. September 28, 2009.

Reports that the German military attaché, Lieutenant Colonel Maximilien von Schwarzkoppen,
had begun an erotic affair with Major Alessandro Panizzardi, the Italian military attaché—it was not called the gay nineties for nothing—and that they wrote to each other in an allusive and sinister-sounding private code. One of their letters, stolen from a second source, included a reference to someone whom Schwarzkoppen called “this scoundrel of a D.,” and who had offered “plans of Nice”—though the whole thing may have been a bantering reference to another lover. (The letter ends, to give a taste of the whole, “Don’t exhaust yourself with too much buggery.”) Source:

Gross, John. "Books of The Times." [Review of] The Affair: The Case of Alfred Dreyfus. By Jean-Denis Bredin. Translated from the French by Jeffrey Mehlman. 628 pages. Illustrated. George Braziller. New York Times, January 7, 1986.

Gross says that the author's
explorations beyond the courtroom yield even more engrossing results. There is the extraordinary correspondence between Maximilien von Schwarzkoppen, the German military attache in Paris, and his Italian opposite number, Alessandro Panizzardi, who were given to addressing each other as Maximilienne and Alexandrine.

Kleeblatt, Norman. "Alfred Dreyfus's Body: A Site for France's displaced anxieties about masculinity, homosexuality and power". February 1998.

The author, the Curator of the Jewish Museum in New York and organizer of the 1987 exhibit on the Dreyfus Case, investigates on the parallels between anti-semitism and homophobia. Source:

McKee, Cameron (Department of History and History of Art). "Visible Anxiety and the Dreyfus Affair: Exploring Jewishness and Homosexuality as Deviant Identities in fin-de siècle France." Source: