Bibliography: Treatment of LGBT People by Doctors and Psychologists

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Alphabeticall Bibliography on the Medical Treatment of Homosexuals and Other Sexual and Gender Variants

This section includes the Bibliography and Backnotes from the section on "Treatment" in Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), pages 589-599.[1]

The medical, surgical, and psychological treatments documented here include, in alphabetical order of their various names:

adaption therapy, asexualization, astrology, Aesthetic Realism, aversion therapy, behavior therapy, castration, chemical and surgical, conditioned reaction technique, conditioning, correction hospitals, covert sensitization, electroshock, group therapy, hysterectomy incarceration, Homo-Anonymous, hypnotic-aversion treatment, hypnotic suggestion, lobotomy, LSD, Metrazol, musical analysis, Organotherapy, ovariectomy, primal therapy, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, pudic nerve section, relationship therapy, Scientology, sex-hormone medication, sex mutilation, shock treatment, sterilization, suggestive therapy, surgery, systematic desensitization, testosterone administration, Vegetotherapy.

See also: Timeline: Treatment of LGBT People by Doctors and Psychologists

Bibliography, Alphabetical

Abramson, Harold A. "Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25), III. As an Adjunct to Psychotherapy with Elimination of Fear of Homosexuality," Journal of Psychology, vol. 39 (Jan. 1955), p. 127-55. Abramson presents a verbatim recording of a four-hour interview with a forty-year-old woman, who under the influence of LSD, speaks of her fear of Lesbianism. Abramson was the LSD expert, trusted by the CIA, who in Nov. 1953 twice examined Frank R. Olson--just before Olson committed suicide as a result of his involuntary participation in a CIA drug experiment (New York Times, July 11,1975, p. 34, col. 5)·

AIinder, Gary. "Gay Liberation Meets the Shrinks," in Out of the Closets; Voice of Gay Liberation, eds. Karla Jay and Allen Young (N.Y.: Douglass, 1972), pages 141-45.

Aschaffenburg, Helga. "Relationship Therapy with a Homosexual: A Case History," Pastoral Counselor, vol. 4, no. I (1964), p. 412;

Banay, Ralph S. and L. Davidoff. "Apparent Recovery of a Sex Psychopath after Lobotomy," Journal of Criminal Psychopathology (N.Y.), vol. 4, no. I (July 1942), p. 59-66. Here the doctors report that after lobotomy the patient's masturbation stopped, he became "complacent" and "tranquil," and "showed no sign of conflict with his environment." He "remained courteous, meek, obliging and attentive." The doctors conclude that lobotomy "might be a new and important development." A psychological dynamic here, unrecognized by the doctors, is a masochistic subject asking for a lobotomy, and the sadistic physicians obliging.

Barahal, Hyman S. "Testosterone in Psychotic Male Homosexuals," Psychiatric Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 2 (1940), pages 319-30.

Barker-Benfield, G. J. The Horrors of the Half-Known Life; Male Attitudes Toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America (N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1976). Surgical measures for masturbation, satyriasis, etc., are cited; on sexual surgery, p. 82-83, 88-90, 91 iI., 97, 104, 120-32, 286-87, 292-93.

Barlow, David H.; Leitenberg, Harold; and Agras, W. Stewart. "Experimental Control of Sexual Deviations through Manipulation of the Noxious Scene in Covert Sensitization," Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 74, no. 5 (1969): p. 596-601. (P. 598, 601.)

Barr, Martin W. "Some Notes on Asexualization; with a Report of Eighteen Cases". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (Lancaster, Pennsylvania), vol. 51, no. 3 (March 1920), p. 231-41. Includes references to females.

Bien, Ernest. "Why Do Homosexuals Undergo Treatment?," Anthropos (N.Y.), vol. I, no. I (Jan. 1934), p. 5-18; also in Medical Review of Reviews, vol. 40, no. I (Jan. 1934), p. 18-51.

Bergler, Edmund. "Eight Prerequisites for the Psychoanalytic Treatment of Homosexuality," Psychoanalytic Review (N.Y.), vol. 3 I (1944); see especially p. 255, 260, 266, 268-69, 277-79, 281-86.

Bergler, Edmund. "Suppositions about the Mechanism of Criminosis," Journal of Criminal Psychopathology, vol. 5 (1943), p. 215-46 (especially case 4, p. 235). Permission to reprint excerpts from Bergler's reports was denied during the preparation of Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976).

Bernstein, Irving C. "Homosexuality in Gynecologic Practice," South Dakota Journal of Medicine, vol. 21 (March 1968), pages 33-39.

Blair, Ralph. Etiological and Treatment Literature on Homosexuality. Otherwise Monograph Ser., no. 5. National Task Force on Student Personnel Services and Homosexuality, 1972. Primal therapy, Vegetotherapy, musical analysis, astrology, Scientology, and Aesthetic Realism are documented, pages 36-37. See also "Part II: Treatment," for a documented discussion and summary of the subject.

Bowman, Karl M. "Sexual Deviation Research." Report to California Assembly, Judiciary Subcommittee on Sex Research, Sacramento, California, March 1952. <Number of pages?>

Bowman, Karl M., and Engle, Bernice. "The Problem of Homosexuality," Journal of Social Hygiene (New York). Vol. 39, no. I (1953): p. 2-16. (P. 10-11.)

Brill, A. A. "The Conception of Homosexuality," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago). Vol. 61 (Aug. 2, 1913): p. 335-40.

Brill, A. A. "The Psychiatric Approach to the Problem of Homosexuality," Psychiatric Association and Student Health Association, vol. 15 (1934), p. 31-34; reprinted in Journal Lancet, vol. 55 (1935), p. 249-52.

Brody, Morris Wolfe. "An Analysis of the Psychosexual Development of a Female: With Special Reference to Homosexuality," Psychoanalytic Review, vol. 30, no. I (1943), p. 47-58; reprinted as "Psychosexual Development of a Female" in The Homosexuals As Seen By Themselves and Thirty Authorities, ed. A. M. Krich, p. 312-24 (N.Y.: Citadel, 1954)·

Buck, W. D. "A Raid on the Uterus," New York Medical Journal, vol. 5 (August 1866), p. 464. In an extract from an address in 1866 by Dr. W. D. Buck, President of the New Hampshire State Medical Society, the doctor says: "A distinguished surgeon in New York city, twenty-five years ago [1841], said, when [Guillaume] Dupuytren's operation for relaxation of the sphincter ani was in vogue, every young man who came from Paris found every other individual's anus too large, and proceeded to pucker it up. The result was that New York anuses looked like gimlet-holes in a piece of pork." Buck goes on to say that the uterus, also, is being subjected to "surgical operations, and is now-a-days subject to all sorts of barbarity from surgeons anxious for notoriety." His statement, which bears further analysis, seems aimed at primitive abortion and birth control measures. A brief biography of Dupuytren is in John Talbott, A Biographical History of Medicine (N.Y.: Grune & Stratton, 1970), p. 342-44. Jonathan Ned Katz thanks Stephen W. Foster and Dennis Lampkowski for help with this research.

Bullough, Vern L., and Martha Voght. "Homosexuality and the 'Secret Sin' in Pre-Freudian America," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, vol. 28, no. 2 (April 1973), p. 143-55. Surgical measures for masturbation, satyriasis, etc., are cited.

Caprio, Frank S. Female Homosexuality; A Psychodynamic Study of Lesbianism. Foreword by Karl M. Bowman. N.Y.: Grove Press, Evergreen Black Cat, 1962.

Cautela, Joseph R. "Covert Sensitization," Psychological Reports (Missoula, Montana). Vol. 20, no. 2 (1967): p. 459-68.

Cave, F. C. "Report of Sterilization in the Kansas State Home for Feeble-minded," Journal of PsychoAsthenics, vol. 15 [1911], p. 123-25; cited in Arno Karlen, Sexuality and Homosexuality; A New View (N.Y.: Norton, 1971), p. 332. In the mid-1890s, F. Hoyt Pilcher, the head of a Kansas institution for the feebleminded, had four boys and fourteen girls castrated without legal authority. It was explained in his defense that castration would prevent "excessive masturbation and pervert [sic] sexual acts". Public outcry stopped further castration.

Chicago Gay Liberation Front, "A Leaflet for the American Medical Association," (1970), reprinted in Out of the Closets; Voice of Gay Liberation, eds. Karla Jay and Allen Young (N.Y.: Douglass, 1972), p. 145-47.

Chideckel, Maurice. Female Sex Perversion. N.Y.: Eugenics Pub. Co., 1938.

Coriat, Isador. "Homosexuality. Its Psychogenesis and Treatment," New York Medical Journal, vol. 97, no. 12 (March 22, 1913), pages 589-94.

Cory, Donald Webster (pseudonym of Edward Sagarin). "Can Homosexuality Be Cured?," Sexology, vol. 18 (Oct. 1951), p. 146-56. An important early American homosexual emancipation movement statement.

Cory, Donald Webster (pseudonym of Edward Sagarin). "Homosexuality," in The Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior, eds. Albert Ellis and Albert Abarbanel, p. 485-93, 2nd rev. ed. (N.Y.: Hawthorn, 1967).

Cory, Donald Webster (pseudonym of Edward Sagarin), and John P. LeRoy, pseud., "Why Homosexuals Resist Cure," Sexology, vol. 30, no. 7 (1964), p. 480-82. An early homosexual emancipationist statement.

"Criminal Law, Sex Offenders, Civil Commitment for Psychiatric Treatment," Columbia Law Review, vol. 39 (1939), p. 534-44;

Daniel, F. E. "Castration of Sexual Perverts," Texas Medical Journal (Austin), Aug. 1893: 255-71. Reprinted in Texas Medical Journal. Vol. 27, no. 10 (April 1912): p. 369-85· A note (p. 369) adds: "Under the title, 'Should Insane Criminals or Sexual Perverts be Permitted to Procreate?' this paper was read at the Joint Session of the World's Columbian Auxiliary Congress--Section of Medical Jurisprudence--and the International Medico-Legal Congress, August 16th, 1893, and also before the American Medico-Legal Society, New York, October 11th, 1893, and published in the 'Medico-Legal Journal' for December, and in the 'Psychological Bulletin,' New York." Dr. Daniel is identified in the 1912 reprint as the editor of the Texas Medical Journal.

Deutsch, Helene. "On Female Homosexuality," authorized trans. by Edith B. Jackson, Psychoanalytic Quarterly (New York). Vol. I (Oct. 1932): p. 484-510. A second trans.: "Homosexuality in Women," International Journal of Psychoanalysis (London), Vol. 14 (1933): p. 34-56.

Deutsch, Nicholas. Interviewed by Jonathan Katz. New York City, Oct. 17, 1974. Quoted in Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976).

Doyle, Thomas L. "Homosexuality and Its Treatment," Nursing Outlook, vol. 15, no. 8 (1967), p. 38-40. Includes treatment of lesbians.

Ellis, Albert. "The Effectiveness of Psychotherapy with Individuals Who Have Severe Homosexual Problems" Journal of Consulting Psychology, vol. 20 (1956), p. 191-95 (28 males, 12 females), reprinted in The Problem of Homosexuality in Modern Society, ed. Hendrik M. Ruitenbeek, p. 175-82 (N.Y.: Dutton, 1963); and Albert Ellis, "The Use of Psychotherapy with Homosexuals" (41 males, 12 females), Mattachine Review, vol. 2, no. I (1956), p. 14-16.

Ellis, Albert. "New Hope for Homosexuals," <original publication data? 1958>, reprinted in The Third Sex, ed. Isadore Rubin, p. 53-57 (N.Y.: New Book Co., 1961) .

Ellis, Havelock. "A Note on the Treatment of Sexual Inversion," Alienist and Neurologist (St. Louis, Missouri). Vol. 17 (July 1896): p. 257-64.

Ellis, Havelock. "Sexual Inversion in Women," Alienist and Neurologist (St. Louis, Missour)i. Vol. 16, no. 2 (April 1895): 141-58.

Ellis, Havelock, and Symonds, John Addington. Sexual Inversion. 1st English ed. London: Wilson and Macmillan, 1897; photo reprint, N.¥.: Arno, 1975· (P. 73.)

Ellis, Havelock, and Talbot, E. S. See Talbot and Ellis.

"Fatal Emetine Poisoning from Aversion Treatment," Re W. T. (Westminster Inquest, Feb. 7, 1964), Medico-Legal Journal, vol. 32, no. 2 (1964), page 95. Cited in Weinberg and Bell, Homosexuality (1972), page 287. Describes the death of a patient undergoing aversion treatment for homosexuality.

Fluckiger, Fritz A. "Research Through a Glass Darkly: An Evaluation of the Bieber Study on Homosexuality," privately printed, 1966. An early homosexual emancipation statement.

Frank, Jerome D. "Treatment of Homosexuals," Working Paper Prepared for the National Institute of Mental Health Task Force on Homosexuality, mimeographed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1967, 13 p.

Freud, Signmund. "Letter to an American Mother" (April 9, 1935). American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 107 (1951), p. 786-87; various reprints.

Freud, Sigmund. "The Psychogenesis of a Case of Female Homosexuality," International Journal of Psycho-Analysis (London). Vol. I, no. 2 (1920): pages 125-49. (On treatment: pages 125-27, 129-30, 131, 133, 134,135, 136, 141-42, 144, 148-49.)

Friedlander, Joseph, and Banay, Ralph S. "Psychosis Following Lobotomy in a Case of Sexual Psychopathology; Report of a Case," Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry (Chicago). Vol. 59 (1948): p. 302-21.

"Gentleman Degenerate, The. A Homosexualist's Self-Description and Self-Applied Title. Pudic Nerve Section Fails Therapeutically," Alienist and Neurologist (St. Louis, Missouri). Vol. 2$, no. I (Feb. I, 1904): p. 62-70. The editor of this journal, Dr. Charles H. Hughes of St. Louis, may be the anonymous physician-author of this piece.

Gilbert, J. A. "Homosexuality and Its Treatment." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (Lancaster, Pennsylvania), vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1920), pages 297-322 (life of Alberta Lucile/Alan Hart; reproduced in Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), Part III, Passing Women, and on

Glass, S. J., and Johnson, Roswell, H. "Limitations and Complications of Organotherapy in Male Homosexuality," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology (Philadelphia). Vol. 4, no. I I (1944): p. 540--44.

Golden, Joshua S. "Varieties of Sexual Problems in Obstetrical and Gynecological Practice," in Sexual Problems: Diagnosis and Treatment in Medical Practice, ed. Charles William Wahl (New York: Free Press, 1967), p. 53-61. Lesbian references.

Goodell, C. E. "Sexual Perversion, Its Effects and Its Treatment," Medical Era (St. Louis, Missour), vol. 19 (1910), pages 499-502.

Goodell, C. E. "Suggestive Therapy in Sexual Perversion," American Journal of Dermatology and Genito-Urinary Disease (St. Louis, Missouri), vol. 8 (1904), p. 104-06.

Hackfield, A. W. "Ameliorative Effects of Therapeutic Castration on Habitual Sex Offenders," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 82, no. I (July 1935), p. 15-29; no. 2 (Aug. 1935), p. 169-81.

Hadden, Samuel B. "Attitudes Toward and Approaches to the Problem of Homosexuality," Pennsylvania Medical Journal (Lemoyne, Pennsylvania). Vol. 6, no. 9 (1957): p. 1195-98.

Harms, Ernest. "Homo-Anonymous," Diseases of the Nervous System (Memphis, Tennessee). Vol. 14, no. 10 (1953): pages 318-19.

Henry, George W. Essentials of Psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1938.

Henry, George W. Sex Variants; A Study of Homosexual Patterns. 2 vols. N.Y.: Paul B. Hoeber, 1941.

Hirschfeld, Magnus. "Adaptionsbehandlung (Anpassungstherapie) der HomosexualiHit." This chapter appears in the first, 1914, German edition. Translation by Henry Gerber from Die Homosexualitiit des Mannes und des Weibes, 2nd ed. (Berlin: Louis Marcus, 1920): chap. 23, pages. 439-61, in ONE Institute Quarterly (Los Angeles), vol. 5, nos. 2, 3, 4, issues 17 (Spring, Summer, Fall 1962): p. 41-54. Translation by Richard Plant in Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), "Treatment."

Hobson, Christopher Z. (writing as James Coleman, pseud.), "Surviving Psychotherapy," Radical Therapy, vol. 2, no. 2 (Sept. 1971), reprinted in Jay and Young (above), p. 147-53.

Hooker, Evelyn, and others, "Final Report of the National Institute of Mental Health Task Force on Homosexuality," reprinted in SIECUS Newsletter (Dec. 1970).

Hughes, Charles H. "An Emasculated Homo-sexual. His Antecedent and Post-Operative Life," Alienist and Neurologist. Vol. 35 (1914): p. 277-80.

Institute for Sex Research. Mimeographed bibliographies on "Homosexuality-Aversion and Behavior Therapy" (Nov. 1972) and "Homosexuality Therapy: Pre-1940" (May 1974)·

Kahn, Samuel. A Study of Homosexuals and Their Education in the New York Correction Hospitals. M. A. thesis, New York University School of Education, 1923, 149 p.

Kameny, Franklin E. "Gay Liberation and Psychiatry." Psychiatric Opinion, vol. 8, no. I (Feb. 1971), p. 18-27, reprinted in The Homosexual Dialectic, ed. Joseph A. McCaffrey (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972), pages <???-???>

Katz, Jonathan Ned. "Treatment" (including Bibliography and Notes), in Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1976.

Kaye, Harvey E.; Berl, S.; Clare, J.; Eleston, M. R.; Gershwin, B. S.; Gershwin, P.; Kogan, S.; Torda, c.; and Wilbur, C. B. "Homosexuality in Women," Archives of General Psychiatry (Chicago). Vol. 17 (Nov. 1967): p. 626-34.

Kemph, John P. and Erna Schwerin, "Increased Latent Homosexuality in a Woman During Group Therapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, vol. 16, no. 2 (1966), pages 217-24.

Kiernan, James G. "Insanity. Lecture XXVI.-Perversion," Detroit Lancet. Vol. 7, no. II (May 1884): p. 481-84. (P. 483-84.)

Kiernan, James G. "Psychical Treatment of Congenital Sexual Inversion," Review of Insanity and Nervous Disease (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). Vol. 4, no. 4 (June 1894): p. 293-95·

Klaich, Dolores. Woman + Woman; Attitudes Toward Lesbianism. N.Y.: Morrow, 1975, paperback. (P. 100-01.)

Kopp, Marie E. "Surgical Treatment as Sex Crime Prevention Measure." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, vol. 28 (Jan.-Feb. 1938), p. 687, etc. <pages ?> Says that between 1889 and 1907 Dr. Sharp of the State Reformatory for Delinquent Boys at Jefferson, Indiana, performed "several hundred" vasectomies.

Krafft-Ebing, R. von. Psychopathia Sexualis, with Special Reference to Contrary Sexual Instinct. A Medico-Legal Study. Authorized trans. of the 7th enlarged and rev. German ed. by Charles Gilbert Chaddock (Phila.: F. A. Davis, 1893). Material on treatment of contrary sexual instinct.

Krafft-Ebing, R. von. Text Book of Insanity (Phila.: F. A. Davis, 1904).

Krich, A. M., ed. The Homosexuals As Seen by Themselves and Thirty Authorities. (N.Y.: Citadel, 1954).

Labelle, Maurice. "Laws Need to Force 'Homos' to Seek Help." Coral Gable Times (Florida), Feb. 4, 1965, p. 6, 8.

Liebman, Samuel. "Homosexuality, Transvestism, and Psychosis: Study of a Case Treated with Electroshock," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (New York). Vol. 99, no. 6 (1944): p. 945-58.

Lind, Earl (Ralph Werther/Jennie June). Autobiography of an Androgyne, ed. with an intro. by Alfred W. Herzog (N.Y.: MedicoLegal Press, 1918; photo reprint, N.Y.: Arno, 1975). On his castration: pages 41-42, 74, 197-201, 230. On see Earl Lind.

Lind, Earl (Ralph Werther/Jennie June). The Female Impersonators... , ed. with intro. by Alfred W. Herzog (N.Y.: Medico-Legal Press, 1922; photo reprint, N.Y.: Arno, 1975). On his castration: pages. 16, 67. On, see Earl Lind.

LoPiccolo, Joseph. "Case Study: Systematic Desensitization of Homosexuality," Behavior Therapy. Vol. 2, no. 3 (July 1971): p. 394-99· (P. 396-98.)

Lydston, G. Frank. "Sex Mutilations in Social Therapeutics, With Some of the Difficulties in the Application of Eugenics to the Human Race," New York Medical Journal, April 6, 1912, pages ???-???.

Lydston, G. Frank. "Sexual Perversion, Satyriasis and Nymphomania," Medical and Surgical Reporter (Philadelphia). Vol. 61, no. 10 (Sept. 7,1889): p. 253-58; Vol. 61, no. II (Sept. 14, 1889): 281-85. A lecture delivered at the Chicago College of Physicians and Surgeons. Although he discusses male and female homosexuality, Lydston makes no specific recommendation for treatment. But since he links homosexuality with satyriasis and nymphomania, there is an unspoken suggestion that it should be similarly treated; for the two "perversions" of which he speaks Lydston suggests "removal of irritation of the sexual apparatus," "anaphrodisiac remedies," "attempts to restrain sexual excesses, or to break the habit of masturbation." But if the "disease" is organic, it is probably incurable and requires more radical treatment: "In women, extirpation of the ovaries, or the procedure of Mr. Baker Brown--clitoridectomy--may be performed. Howe recommends the application of the actual cautery to the back of the neck. Basing this treatment upon the theory that the disease takes its origin in over-excitation of the nerve fibres of the cerebellum or some of the ganglia in the neighborhood, he also suggests blisters and setons to answer the same purpose. Dry cupping to the nucha is also serviceable. Means to restore the general health are always indicated. In the severe cases of the maniacal form of excessive sexual desire the asylum is usually our only recourse".

Max, Louis William. "Breaking Up a Homosexual Fixation by the Conditioned Reaction Technique: A Case Study," Psychological Bulletin (Washington, D.C.), Vol. 32 (1935): p. 734·

Mendelsohn, Fred, and Matthew Ross, "An Analysis of 133 Homosexuals Seen at A University Health Service". Diseases of the Nervous System, vol. 20, no. 6 (1959), p. 246-50. (109 males, 24 females).

Miller, Michael M. "Hypnotic-Aversion Treatment of Homosexuality," Journal of the National Medical Association. Vol. 55, no. 5 (1963): p. 411-15, 436. Brief biographical information on Miller is in the American Medical Directory, 24th ed. (1967), part 2, p. 1503.

Modern Medicine (April 1969, p. 20). According to Blair above (p. 27), a survey reported in Modern Medicine found that only one in four Lesbians interviewed wanted to become heterosexual. <Full citation???>

Moll, Albert. Perversions of the Sex Instinct. Newark, New Jersey: Julian Press, 1931.

Moore, Thomas V. "The Pathogenesis and Treatment of Homosexual Disorders: A Digest of Some Pertinent Evidence," Journal of Personality (Durham, North Carolina). Vol. 14 (1945): p. 47-83.

Oberhoffer, Emil. The Influence of Castration on the Libido," American Journal of Urology and Sexology, vol. 12 (Jan.-Dec. 1916), p. 58-60. <Check date of publication and correct if necessary.>

Owensby, Newdigate M. 'The Correction of Homosexuality," Urologic and Cutaneous Review (St. Louis, Missouri). Vol. 45, no. 8 (1941): p. 494-96.

Owensby, Newdigate. "Homosexuality and Lesbianism Treated with Metrazol," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (New York). Vol. 92, no. I (1940): p. 65-66.

Parker, William. Homosexuality; A Selective Bibliography of Over 3.000 Items (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1971). Documents on various treatment forms through 1969 are listed and indexed.

Potter, La Forest. Strange Loves: A Study in Sexual Abnormalities (N.Y.: Robert Dodsley, 1933). On treatment, pages 161-62; 167, 173, 177-78; 118-19; 147; 236-37·

Quackenbos, John Duncan. "Hypnotic Suggestion in the Treatment of Sexual Perversions and Moral Anaesthesia: A Personal Experience," Transactions of the New Hampshire Medical Society (Concord), 1899: pages 69-91.

Radicalesbians Health Collective. "Lesbians and the Health Care System," mimeographed, 1971, reprinted in Out of the Closets; Voice of Gay Liberation, eds. Karla Jay and Allen Young (N.Y.: Douglass, 1972), pages 122-41.

Raffalovich, Marc Andre. "Uranism, Congenital Sexual Inversion. Observations and Recommendations ... " Trans. C. Judson Herrick. Journal of Comparative Neurology. Vol. 5 (March 1895): p. 33-65. Advocates abstinence for homosexuals and heterosexuals. On Raffalovich see Timothy d'Arch Smith, Love in Earnest; Some Notes on the Lives and Writings of English 'Uranian' Poets from 1889 to 1930 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970), p. 29-34, 53, 77, 107, 153, 186, 249 and Brian Reade, ed., Sexual Heretics; Male Homosexuality in English Literature from 1850 to 1900 (N.Y.: Coward McCann, 1970), pages 32-35, 38, 40, 50, 53·

"Removal of the Ovaries as a Therapeutic Measure in Public Institutions for the Insane," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago), Feb. 4, 1893, p. 135-37. <There may be an earlier article on this in January.> Dr. Joseph Price mentioned: p. 136-37. Also see "Domestic Correspondence," same, Feb. 18, 1893, p. 182-83. For comment on this article see Dr. F. E. Daniel (1893) on

Riedner, K. "Cure of Homosexuals," Sexology (New York), vol. I (1933), p. 490-92.

Robertiello, Richard C. "Clinical Notes: Results of Separation from Iposexual Parents During the Oedipal Period, [and] A Female Homosexual Panic," Psychoanalytic Review, vol. 51, no. 4 (1964-65), p. 670-72.

Robertiello, Richard C. Voyage from Lesbos: The Psychoanalysis of a Female Homosexual. N.¥.: Citadel, 1959. (P. 238-48, 253.)

Robinson, Marty. "Homosexuals & Society: The 'Cure' Is Rebellion," Village Voice (New York), April 29, 1971.

Roman, M. "The Treatment of the Homosexual in the Group," Topical Problems in Psychotherapy, vol. 5 (1965), p. 170-75.

Rosenzweig, Saul, and Hoskins, R. G. "A Note on the Ineffectualness of Sex-Hormone Medication in a Case of Pronounced Homosexuality," Psychosomatic Medicine. Vol. 3, no. 1 (1941): p.87-89·

Roueche, Berton. "Annals of Medicine; As Empty As Eve," The New Yorker. Sept. 9, 1974: p.84-100. Report on a female victim of shock treatment (though not involving homosexuality).

Rutner, Ivan I. "A Double-barrel Approach to Modification of Homosexual Behavior," Psychological Reports (Missoula, Montana). Vol. 26, no. 2 (1970): p. 355-58.

Schrenck-Notzing, Albert von. Therapeutic Suggestion in Psychopathia Sexualis with Especial Reference to Contrary Sexual Instinct. Authorized trans. from the German by Charles Gilbert Chaddock. Phila.: F. A. Davis, 1895.

Schur, Edwin M. Crimes without Victims; Deviant Behavior and Public Policy: Abortion, Homosexuality, and Drug Addiction (Englewood Cliffs, N.Y.: Prentice-Hall, 1965).

Sharp, Harry Clay. "Human Sterilization." Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 4, no. 12 (1909), pages ???-???.

Sharp, Harry Clay. "The Sterilization of Degenerates." Indiana Board of State Charities. National Christian League for the Promotion of Purity, 1908. Reprint of paper read before the American Prison Association, Chicago, 1909. Copy in N.Y. Public Library, Research Division.

Silverstein, Charles. [Review of John Bancroft's Deviant Sexual Behavior: Modification and Assessment. London: Oxford University Press, 1974.] Behavior Therapy. Vol. 6, no. 4 (July 1975), pages <???>.

SInclair, Jo (pseudonym of Ruth Seid). Wasteland. New York: Harper, 1946. Novel in which a lesbian who has come to accepting terms with her orientation helps her brother come to terms with his Jewish heritage. See: Sinclair (Seid): "Wasteland," 1946

Smith, Alexander B., and Bassin, Alexander. "Group Therapy with Homosexuals," Journal of Social Therapy (New York). Vol. 5, no. 3 (1959): p. 225-32.

Smec, J., and Freund, Kurt. "Treatment of Male Homosexuality through Conditioning," International Journal of Sexology (Bombay India). Vol. 7, no. 2 (1953): p. 92-93. <Check spelling of Smec>

Socarides, Charles W. "Female Homosexuality," in Sexual Behavior and the Law, ed. Ralph Slovenko (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1965), pages. 462-77.

Sprague, George S. "Varieties of Homosexual Manifestations," with discussion by Karl A. Menninger, Isador H. Coriat, Charles I. Lambert, Ernest M. Poate, and S. W. Hartwell, 1935; reprinted in The Homosexuals As Seen by Themselves and Thirty Authorities, ed. A. M. Krich, p. 174-87 (N.Y.: Citadel, 1954).

Stekel, Wilhelm. "Is Homosexuality Curable?" Trans. Bertrand S. Frohman. Psychoanalytic Review. Vol. 17 (Oct. 1930): p. 443-51.

Stevenson, Edward I. Prime (Xavier Mayne, pseud.). The Intersexes; A History of Similisexualism as a Problem in Social Life. [Naples?:] Privately printed, [by R. Rispoli, 1908?]; photo reprint, N.Y.: Amo, 1975. On treatment: pages 119-22, 549.

Szasz, Thomas S. Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry: An Inquiry into the Social Uses of Mental Health Practices (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1963).

Szasz, Thomas S. The Manufacture of Madness: A Comparative Study of the Inquisition and the Mental Health Movement. New York: Harper and Row, 1970. On mental institution commitment policy and practice, see Delta Books/Dell edition, 1970), pages 49-52, 54-56, 62, 64-67.

Szasz, Thomas S. The Myth of Mental Illness (N.Y.: Hoeber and Harper, 1961).

Talbot, E. S., and Ellis, Havelock. "A Case of Degenerative Insanity, with Sexual Inversion, Melancholia, following Removal of Testicles, Attempted Murder and Suicide," Journal of Mental Science. Vol. 42, no. 177, new ser. no. 177 (April 1896): p. 340-44 (Le. 46-erroneous pagination in original). See Guy T. Olmstead Shoots William L. Clifford: March 28,1894 on

Teal, Donn. The Gay Militants (New York: Stein and Day, 1971. On treatment p. 293-301.

Thompson, George N. "Electroshock and Other Therapeutic Considerations in Sexual Psychopathology," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (New York), vol. 109, no. 6 (June 1949), p. 531-39.

Weinberg, Martin S. and Alan P. Bell, Homosexuality; An Annotated Bibliography (N.Y.: Harper and Row, 1972). Bibliography of the medical and psychological literature. Contains a large, useful, alphabetical, annotated listing of books and articles dating from 1940 to 1968 on the treatment of homosexuals. The index provides a guide to types of treatment, and the introduction lists the various indexes and guides used in the compilation.

Wilbur, Cornelia B. "Clinical Aspects of Female Homosexuality," in Sexual Inversion: The Multiple Roots of Homosexuality, ed. Judd Marmor, p. 268-8 I (N.Y.: Basic Books, 1965).

Zlotlow, Moses and Albert E. Paganini. "Autoerotic and Homoerotic Manifestations in Hospitalized Male Postlobotomy Patients, Psychiatric Quarterly (Poughkeepsie, N.Y.), vol. 33, no. 3 (1959), <pages ???-???>.


  1. In the acknowledgements in that section, Katz thanks "James D. Steakley for his help in compiling this part, and for writing a first draft of the general introduction and introductions to the documents. Responsibility for the final versions is my own." For hysterectomy as treatment, see Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), Part 3, "Passing Women," p. 276, 606n. 69.

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