Alberta Lucille Hart/Alan L. Hart: October 4, 1890-July 1, 1962

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Adapted and rewritten from Wikipedia[1]


Hart (October 4, 1890 - July 1, 1962) was an American physician, radiologist, tuberculosis researcher, writer and novelist who was born a female named Alberta Lucille. In 1917-18 Hart underwent the surgical removal of the uterus and ovaries and lived thereafter as a male, Alan L. Hart. Hart is the earliest-known female in the U.S. to undergo a surgical operation to facilitate life lived as a male.

This biography honors its subject by trying to understand and describe Hart in the context of Hart's own time -- its possibilities and limits, its particular historical configuration of concepts, categories, and power relationships, and its substantial changes over the years. It aims, first, to comprehend how at different times Hart understood her/himself and, second, to comprehend how Hart was understood by others. It aims, also, to avoid projecting the concepts, categories, and ways of living of a later time on Hart. From an early age Hart's writings document that she experienced life as a girl who identified with boys and aspired to the freedom and lives of men. Later in life Hart lived as a man. So this account will refer to Hart before 1918 as female and after 1918 as male, though the reality may have been more complex.

Alan L. Hart pioneered the use of x-ray photography in tuberculosis detection, and helped implement TB screening programs that saved thousands of lives.[2]

OPEN ENTRY: This entry is open to collaborative creation by anyone with evidence, citations, and analysis to share, so no particular, named creator is responsible for the accuracy and cogency of its content. Please use this entry's Comment section at the bottom of the page to suggest improvements about which you are unsure. Thanks.

Hart as baby and as young woman. From The Albany College Yearbook, 1911 (Jonathan Ned Katz Collection).



Early life

Alberta Lucille Hart was born October 4, 1890 in Halls Summit, Coffey County, Kansas to Albert L. Hart and Edna Hart (née Bamford). When Hart's father died of typhoid fever in 1892, her mother reverted to her maiden name and moved the family to Linn County, Oregon where she cared for her own mother during a period of sickness. Hart's mother remarried, to Bill Barton, and the family moved to Edna Barton's father's farm.

The five year old Alberta Hart was already valuing and enjoying the activities and clothes specific to boys. Hart wrote in 1911 of being happy during the time at her grandfather's farm since Hart was free to dress and live as a boy, playing with boys' toys made by her grandfather. Her parents and grandparents largely accepted and supported Hart's gender expression, though her mother described her desire to be a boy as "foolish." Reflecting Hart's transition from female to male in 1917-1918, Hart's grandparents' obituaries from 1921 and 1924, both list Hart as a grandson.[3]

When Hart was 12 the family moved to Albany, Oregon. There Hart was obliged to dress as a girl to attend school, and was treated as a girl. Hart spent the holidays at her grandfather's farm, living there as a boy among her male friends, "teasing the girls and playing boy's games".[4]

According to a reminiscence piece in the Halls Summit News of June 10, 1921, "Young Hart was different, even then. Boys' clothes just felt natural. Lucille always regarded herself as a boy and begged her family to cut her hair and let her wear trousers. Lucille disliked dolls but enjoyed playing doctor. She hated traditional girl tasks, preferring farm work with the menfolk instead. The self reliance that became a lifelong trait was evident early: once when she accidentally chopped off her fingertip with an axe, Lucille dressed it herself, saying nothing about it to the family.[5]

During Hart's school years, she was allowed to write essays under his chosen name "Robert Allen Bamford, Jr." with little resistance from his classmates or teachers. It was common at the time for writers to use pseudonyms, including the assuming of names associated with the other sex. Hart published work in local newspapers and in school and college publications under this name, or as "submitted by an anonymous boy", or using the neutral "A.L.H." or "A. Hart".

She used her legal name "Lucille Hart" only under pressure from peers or seniors. Her early work dealt with subjects then considered masculine, even when she was asked to write on topics about life as a woman. When asked to write about female classmates or friends she portrayed them as prize fighters, or boyish basketball players.

Hart attended Albany College (now Lewis & Clark College), then transferred with classmate and romantic and sexual partner Eva Cushman to Stanford University for the 1911-1912 school year before going back to Albany.[6]

Hart graduated from Albany College in 1912, and in 1917 obtained a doctor of medicine degree from the University of Oregon Medical Department in Portland (now Oregon Health & Science University).

During this period, Hart also returned to Northern California to attend courses in the summer of 1916 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, then located in San Francisco.[7]

Hart was deeply unhappy that the medical degree was issued in her female name, limiting her opportunities to use it in any future life under a male name. College records show that at least one of the senior staff was sympathetic; his graduation records were indexed internally as "Hart, Lucille (aka Robert L.), M.D.".[8] Nonetheless, Hart knew that if she presented herself as Robert, any prospective employer checking credentials would discover the female name or find no records at all.

After graduation Hart worked for a short while (as a woman) at a Red Cross hospital in Philadelphia.[9]

Seeking Help

Upon reaching adulthood Hart sought psychiatric counseling and radical surgery in order to live as a man. Hart's is the earliest-known surgically augmented female to male transition documented in the United States.[10].

Some surgeries to reshape the body of a female and facilitate identification with and life as male had been carried out in Germany.[11] The 1906-1907 transition in Germany of Karl M. Baer, born Martha Baer, set a precedent for such surgery by receiving support from psychiatric, legal, and surgical experts. There was now medical and legal precedent in Germany to operate on an otherwise healthy female body to facilitate life lived as a male. Hart's approach to her own transition appears to have drawn on the Baer case.[12]

In 1917 Hart approached Dr. J. Allen Gilbert at the University of Oregon and requested radical surgery to eliminate menstruation and the possibility of ever becoming pregnant. That concern may have also reflected the eugenic rationale Hart presented to Gilbert, that a person with "abnormal inversion" should be sterilized to ensure no further perpetuation of such a condition, conceived as inborn.[13]

Gilbert was initially reluctant, but concluded that Hart was "extremely intelligent and not mentally ill, but afflicted with a mysterious disorder for which I [Gilbert] have no explanation". He saw that Hart experienced herself as a male, one who described using a phrase like "the other fellows and I" and asking "what could a fellow do?"

Gilbert wrote, in case notes published in the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders in 1920, that "from a sociological and psychological standpoint she [Hart] is a man" and that living as one was Hart's only chance for a happy existence, "the best that can be done."

Gilbert added, "Let him who finds in himself a tendency to criticize offer some constructive method of dealing with the problem on hand. He will not want for difficulties. The patient and I have done our best with it."

Hart's is the earliest-known example of an American psychiatrist recommending the removal of a healthy organ based solely on an individual's sex identification.[14]

Hart's surgery was completed at the University of Oregon Medical School over the 1917-1918 winter vacation. Hart then legally changed his name, and in February 1918 married his first wife, Inez Stark, and moved with her to Gardiner, Oregon, to set up his own medical practice.[15]

Dr. Alan L. Hart, circa February 1922.[16]


Life as Alan L. Hart

In Oregon, Hart suffered an early blow when a former medical school classmate recognized him as a former woman, forcing Hart and his wife to move. Hart found the experience traumatic and again consulted Gilbert, who wrote that Hart had suffered from "the hounding process ... which our modern social organization can carry on to such perfection and refinement."Template:Citation needed

Hart set up a new practice in remote Huntley, Montana, writing later that he "did operations in barns and houses ... ('til) the crash of the autumn of 1920 wiped out most of the Montana farmers and stockmen, and me along with them".Template:Citation needed

He then took itinerant work, until in 1921, on a written recommendation from noted doctor Harriet J. Lawrence (decorated by President Woodrow Wilson for developing a flu vaccine), Hart secured a post as staff physician at Albuquerque Sanatorium, in New Mexico.Template:Citation needed

The relocations, financial insecurity, and secrecy placed a strain on Hart's marriage, and Inez left him in September 1923. She ordered him to have no further contact with her, and divorced him in 1925.Template:Citation needed

In 1925 Hart also married his second wife, Edna Ruddick and the union lasted until the end of Hart's life. The same year Hart moved to the Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium/Trudeau School of Tuberculosis in New York, where he also carried out postgraduate work.Template:Citation needed

He spent 1926-1928 as a clinician at the Rockford, Illinois TB sanatorium.Template:Citation needed

In 1928 Hart obtained a masters degree in Radiology] from the University of Pennsylvania.Template:Citation needed

In 1929 he was appointed Director of Radiology at Tacoma General Hospital.Template:Citation needed

The couple next moved to Idaho, where Hart worked during the 1930s and early 1940s.Template:Citation needed

His work next took him to Washington state, where he held a research fellowship as a roentgenologist in Spokane.Template:Citation needed

During the Second World War, Hart was also a medical adviser at the Army Recruiting and Induction headquarters in Seattle, while Edna worked for the King County Welfare Department in the same city.Template:Citation needed

Author photo from the dust jacket of Alan L. Hart's These Mysterious Rays, 1943.


In 1948, after Hart obtained a Masters Degree in Public Health from Yale University, the couple moved to Connecticut, where Hart had been appointed Director of Hospitalization and Rehabilitation for the Connecticut State Tuberculosis Commission. Template:Citation needed

The couple lived for the rest of their lives in West Hartford, Connecticut, where Edna became a professor at the University of Hartford.Template:Citation needed

After the Second World War synthetic male hormones became available in the US, and for the first time Hart was able to grow a beard and shave. He also obtained a deeper voice, making him more confident and his public appearances easier.[17]

During the last six years of his life Hart gave numerous lectures, and dedicated all his free time to fundraising for medical research and to support patients with advanced TB who could not afford treatment. Template:Citation needed

He was a member of the American Thoracic Society, American Public Health Association, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and American Civil Liberties Union, among many others. Socially, both he and Edna were well liked, active community leaders. Alan served for eight years as vice president for his local Unitarian Church council.Template:Citation needed

Hart died of heart failure on July 1, 1962.[18] The terms of his will directed his body be cremated and his ashes scattered over Puget Sound where he and Edna had spent many happy summers together.Template:Citation needed

Hart once said in a speech to graduating medical students, "Each of us must take into account the raw material which heredity dealt us at birth and the opportunities we have had along the way, and then work out for ourselves a sensible evaluation of our personalities and accomplishments".Template:Citation needed

Tuberculosis research

Hart devoted much of his career to research into and treatment of tuberculosis.

In the early 20th century the disease was the biggest killer in America. Doctors, including Hart, were realizing that myriad illnesses - consumption, phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, Koch's disease, scrofula, lupus vulgaris, white plague, King's evil, Pott's disease, and Gibbus - were all in fact cases of tuberculosis (TB).Template:Citation needed

TB usually attacked victims' lungs first; Hart was among the first physicians to document how it then spread, via the circulatory system, causing lesions on the kidneys, spine, and brain, eventually resulting in death.Template:Citation needed

Scientists had discovered in the nineteenth century that tuberculosis was not hereditary, but an airborne virus spread rapidly among persons in close proximity by coughing and sneezing. This meant it might be treated but, with no cure for the disease in its advanced stages. the only hope for sufferers was early detection.

X-rays, or Roentgen rays as they were more commonly known until World War Two, had been discovered in 1895. In the early twentieth century they were used to detect bone fractures and tumors, but Hart became interested in their potential for detecting tuberculosis.Template:Citation needed

Since the disease often presented no symptoms in its early stages, x-ray screening was invaluable for early detection. Even rudimentary early x-ray machines could detect the disease before it became critical. This allowed early treatment, often saving the patient's life. It also meant sufferers could be identified and isolated from the population, greatly lessening the spread of the disease. Public fund-raising drives, like the then newly created Christmas Seal campaign, helped finance these efforts. By the time antibiotics were introduced in the 1940s, doctors using the techniques Hart developed had managed to cut the tuberculosis death toll down to one fiftieth.Template:Citation needed

In 1937 Hart was hired by the Idaho Tuberculosis Association and later became the state's Tuberculosis Control Officer. He established up Idaho's first fixed-location and mobile TB screening clinics and spearheaded the state's war against tuberculosis. Between 1933 and 1945 Hart traveled extensively through rural Idaho, covering thousands of miles while lecturing, conducting mass TB screenings, training new staff, and treating the effects of the epidemic.Template:Citation needed

An experienced and accessible writer, Hart wrote widely for medical journals and popular publications, describing TB for technical and general audiences and giving advice on its prevention, detection, and cure.Template:Citation needed At the time the word "tuberculosis" carried a social stigma akin to venereal disease, so Hart insisted his clinics be referred to as "chest clinics", himself as a "chest doctor", and his patients as "chest patients". Discretion and compassion were important tools in treating the stigmatized disease.

In 1943 Hart, now recognized as preeminent in the field of tubercular Roentgenology, compiled his extensive evidence on TB and other x-ray-detectable cases into a definitive compendium, These Mysterious Rays: A Nontechnical Discussion of the Uses of X-rays and Radium, Chiefly in Medicine (New York, Harper & Brothers), still a standard text in 2011. The book was translated into several languages, including Spanish.Template:Citation needed

In 1948 Hart was appointed Director of Hospitalization and Rehabilitation for the Connecticut State Tuberculosis Commission. As in Idaho, Dr. Hart took charge of a massive state-wide x-ray screening program for TB, emphasizing the importance of early detection and treatment. He held this position for the rest of his life, and is credited with helping contain the spread of tuberculosis in Connecticut as he had previously in the Pacific Northwest. Similar programs based on his leadership and methodology in this field in other states also saved many thousands of lives.[19]

Fiction writing

Alongside his medical practice and research, Hart pursued a second career as a novelist. He had in early life published in local, school, and college magazines, and later published four novels, chiefly on medical themes.

Hart's four novels incorporate semi-autobiographical themes. The Undaunted (1936) includes a doctor, Richard Cameron, who describes himself as a 'cripple' after his foot is amputated following persistent bone infection. Cameron worries that this physical defect will drive women away, but ends up marrying his sweetheart. A second character, a radiologist named Sandy Farquhar, is a homosexual man who has been harassed and tormented, driven from job to job, over his sexuality. Farquhar, who is short, thin, and bespectacled, resembles Hart physically, and considers himself "the possessor of a defective body" from which he wishes to escape. Homosexuals and transsexuals have reported similar feelings. (For excerpts from The Undaunted click on Alan Hart: "The Undaunted," 1936.) Another novel, In the Lives of Men, contains a gay male character with a missing arm.Template:Citation needed

Early short stories

The following short stories were collected in The Life and Career of Alberta Lucille/Dr. Alan L. Hart, with collected early writings, by Brian Booth (2003):

1908 Frankfort Center (Albany High School Whirlwind)

For an assignment to write about female college members and sporting activities, Hart described the ambiguously-named "Frances", a prize boxer and basketball player.

1909 My Irish Colleen (published anonymously in the Albany College Student, March 1909)

A love poem, presented as the work of an anonymous male student about an Irish girl. It was reprinted in Hart's college yearbook in 1911, under Hart's female name, thereby publicizing her crush on Eva Cushman.

1909 To the Faculty (Albany College Student, March 1909)

A call for student rebellion and statement of the need of students to be taken seriously. The work discusses doves spreading their wings and flying, reflecting Hart's sense of confinement while forced to live as a sedate young woman.

1909 The American 'Martha' (Albany College Student, December 1909)

A critical take on the fate of women obliged to be housewives, and raising their daughters to the same destiny. The piece quotes the Bible and reflects a concern for women's rights, indicating that Hart was influenced by feminist ideas.

1909 'Ma' on the Football Hero (Published in the Albany College Student, December 1909)

Hart questions "what his mother would say if he were to be a rough and tough College football hero?"

1910 The Magic of Someday (Albany College Student, January 1910)

A lament on the destruction of Hart's childhood dreams of freedom when he was obliged to be female; ending with hope for a future in which he, "with a heart of a man," might be happy.

1910 The National Triune (Albany College Student, February 1910)

Published as the work of "Lucille Hart", the story condemns contemporary political scandals and the injustice of discrimination based on sex, and sets out Hart's ideas about the character of a true and respectable man.

1910 The Unwritten Law of the Campus (Albany College Student, March 1910)

A discussion of the difference between moral laws, physical laws, and laws of convention, with reference to the discourtesy of someone who tells tales on another student for contravening gender norms.

1911 An Idyll of a Country Childhood ("The Takenah," Albany College Yearbook, 1911)

This story frankly describes Hart's early life and its freedom to dress and live as a boy.


1935 Doctor Mallory (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.)

An overnight best-seller, Hart's first novel drew on his experiences as a small town doctor in Gardiner, Oregon. It portrayed the medical profession as increasingly venal, and was the first exposé of the medical world by a working doctor.

After the publication of Doctor Mallory, Hart wrote that one of his ambitions was "to be an 'unofficial observer' of the medical profession during the remainder of my life" and "to write a novel about a research institute, another about hospitals, another about a family of doctors." He eventually wrote all three.[20]

1936 The Undaunted (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.)

This novel portrayed a homosexual physician, "Sandy Farquhar", pursuing a career in radiology "because he thought it wouldn't matter so much in a laboratory what a man's personality was." This reflects conflicts and themes which Hart himself had experienced in his early career. Farquhar has been harassed and tormented, driven from job to job because of his homosexuality. Farquhar, who is short, thin, and bespectacled, resembles Hart physically, and considers himself "the possessor of a defective body" from which he wishes to escape. The novel also focuses on a doctor, Richard Cameron, who describes himself as a "'cripple" after his foot is amputated following persistent bone infection. Cameron worries that this physical defect will drive women away, but ends up marrying his sweetheart.

1937 In the Lives of Men (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.)

Hart's third novel was favorably reviewed for its insights into contemporary medicine. It contains a male homosexual character with a missing arm.

Hart's novels received a fair amount of critical attention and were reviewed in The New York Times, The New York Herald-Tribune, Saturday Review of Literature and other leading publications of the day. Intriguingly, in reviewing In the Lives of Men, the Saturday Review's critic wrote that, "...for a doctor, he seems to know surprisingly little of women. His portraits of them are little more than profile sketches.[21].

1942 Doctor Finlay Sees it Through (New York: Harper & Brothers)

Hart's final novel (not to be confused with A. J. Cronin's Dr Finlay's Casebook) is considered to have influenced subsequent medical fiction.


After Hart's death his wife acted on his wish to establish a fund for research into leukaemia, from which his mother had died. The interest on his estate is donated annually to the Alan L. and Edna Ruddick Hart Fund, which makes grants for research into leukaemia and its cure.

Hart's will, written in 1943, stipulated that his personal letters and photographs be destroyed, and this was done on his death in 1962. Hart had acted all his life to control the interpretation of his private and emotional life, and the destruction of his personal records at his death were commensurate with this goal.[22]

Hart's published fiction, from the earliest to the last, may be understood as an attempt to account for his own life.


Scholars writing on Hart's life has disagreed about Hart's self-perceived identity, and how to understand that identity the historical context in which Hart lived. Writers have characterized Hart as homosexual, or specifically "lesbian," or "transsexual," and activist advocates for various groups have claimed Hart as a representative.

Jonathan Ned Katz, in Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (1976), first identified Hart as the pseudonymous "H", the subject of J. Allan Gilbert's "Homo-Sexuality and Its Treatment", Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Volume 2, No. 4 (Oct. 1920), pages 297-332. The posthumous discovery of Hart's identity led to all the further revelations about Hart's life.

Writing at a time when the scholarly reclamation of a suppressed U.S. lesbian, gay, and transgender history was just getting started, Katz was determined to claim Hart as a "lesbian," one who had adopted a male identity and lived as a male to avoid the powerful strictures against women loving and having sex with women.[23]

Katz contended again, in 1983, in Gay/Lesbian Almanac: A New Documentary that Hart was "clearly a lesbian, a woman-loving woman".[24]

In 2002, Katz publicly discounted his earlier understanding of Hart and his attempt to "claim" Hart as lesbian. Katz then urged scholars to inquire deeply into how Hart and other past subjects understood themselves in a particular historical context of ideas, words, norms, and power relations, rather than trying to claim them by fitting them into present categories.[25][26]

In 1977, Jonathan Ned Katz's inquiry to the public library in Albany, Oregon, elicited the information that as Dr. Alan Hart, Alberta Lucille had published a number of books and technical papers, that Hart's widow was still living in a Connecticut city, and that she corresponded with a friend in Albany. Subsequent attempts by Katz to learn more of Hart's life by contacting the doctor's widow were discouraged by her. The message passed on by her friend in Albany was: "Let that all be passed now. She is older and does not want any more heart ache now."[27]

Despite a claim that Hart's wife was offended by Katz's categorization of her husband (and by extension, herself) as lesbian, no evidence for this interpretation has been presented.[28]

Against Katz's early claiming of Hart as lesbian, Jillian Todd Weiss has asserted that Hart experienced himself as a man from early childhood, identifying transphobia and "blatant disregard for transgender identities" in the claim that Hart was 'really' a woman.[29]

Some historians note that Hart never described himself as a transsexual since the term was not published until the 1920s, and not widely used until the 1960s, near the time of Hart's death.

A number of Hart’s biographers view the doctor as a woman in disguise, ignoring Hart’s early self-identification as a male, Hart's medical treatment and legal documentation.[30]

O’Hartigan sets forth, disapprovingly, an explanation for referring to Hart as female by Susan Stryker: “As an historian favoring ‘social construction’ approaches to questions of identity, I have reservations about using the word ‘transsexual’ to refer to people before the mid-20th century who identify in a profound, ongoing manner with a gender that they were not assigned to at birth.”[31]

Some have claimed Hart as a transsexual pioneer, who lived after his transition exclusively as a man, just as modern transsexuals do.[32]

Joy Parks describes the battle, especially within Portland, Oregon GLBT communities over Hart's identity as "extremely ugly" and one in which "neither side appeared particularly victorious."[33]

Exhibitions About Hart

From July-October 1994, the story of Alberta Lucille Hart and Eva Cushman's attendance at Stanford University, along with a brief description of their subsequent lives, was included in the historical exhibition "Coming to Terms: Passionate Friendship to Gay Liberation on the Farm" at Cecil H. Green Library at Stanford. The exhibition was curated by independent scholar Gerard Koskovich; it was the subject of a feature article in the Stanford Daily. Note that "the farm" in the exhibition title is a nickname for the Stanford campus.

In 2002 the Aubrey Watzek Library at Lewis & Clark College ran an exhibition on Hart's life and early writings, titled "The Lives Of Men": A Literary Glimpse at the Life of Alberta Lucille Hart/Dr. Alan L. Hart, a title drawing on one of Hart's novels. The exhibition's run was extended by nearly a month in light of unexpectedly high interest.

In April and May 2004, Hart and Cushman's story also was featured in a second historical exhibition at Stanford University: "Creating Queer Space at Stanford: Pages From a Student Scrapbook," which was on display in the second floor lobby of Tresidder Memorial Union on the Stanford campus. The exhibition was curated by independent scholar Gerard Koskovich, with Stanford undergraduate Hunter Hargraves serving as associate curator.

Bibliography: Primary Sources

Gilbert, J. Allen. "Homo-Sexuality and Its Treatment", Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Volume 2, No. 4 (Oct. 1920), pages 297-332. Excepted on

"Hart, Lucille (aka Robert L.), M.D." Graduation file for "Hart, Lucille (aka Robert L.), M.D." Oregon Health & Science University Historical Collections & Archives BIOGRAPHICAL FILES. Box 27 of the Licenses, Degrees, and Certificates Collection.

"Reminiscences of Hall's Summit," in Halls Summit News, Halls Summit, Coffey County, Kansas, June 10, 1921.

Bibliography: Works About Hart

Alter, Levi. "FTM Contributions to Medicine, Psychology, Science and Engineering." Accessed July 12, 2011.

Bair, Henry. "Lucille Hart Story" and Brian Booth "Alan Hart: A Literary Footnote", in Right to Privacy Ninth Annual Lucille Hart Dinner Booklet, October 6, 1990.

Bates, Tom. "Decades ago, an Oregon Doctor Tried to Define Gender"" The Oregonian (July 14, 1996).

Booth, Brian. "Alberta Lucille Hart/Dr. Alan L. Hart: An Oregon 'Pioneer'". Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission.

Booth, Brian. Compilation of Hart's college writings from the Lewis & Clark College Special Collections, accompanied by an overview and timeline of Hart's life.

Booth, Brian. The Life and Career of Alberta Lucille/Dr. Alan L. Hart with Collected Early Writings. Lewis & Clark College, Portland, OR. 1999.

Description: A compilation of Alan Hart's college writings from the Lewis & Clark College Special Collections accompanied by an overview and timeline of Hart's life. This pamphlet was published following an exhibit of Hart's writings at Aubrey Watzek Library, Lewis & Clark College, March 15-June 1, 2002. Printed in an edition of 100 copies. 39 pages. Publisher: Friends of the Aubrey Watzek Library, Lewis & Clark College, Portland, Oregon. Contributors: Introduction and bibliography by Brian Booth; designed by Jeremy Skinner; edited by Paul Merchant, Doug Erickson, and Jeremy Skinner. Subject. Alan L. Hart. Date: 2003. Media Type: exhibit catalog, pamphlet. File Format:pdf. Online at:


Erickson, Doug, designer. Poster for exhibit: "The Lives of Men:" A Literary Glimpse at the Life of Alberta Lucille Hart/Dr. Alan L. Hart." Poster for an exhibit at the Aubrey Watzek Library, Lewis & Clark College, March 15-June 1, 2002. Publisher: Lewis & Clark College Special Collections, Portland, Oregon. Date of creation: March 2002. Media Type: exhibit poster. File Format: pdf. Online at: [6]

Katz, Jonathan [Ned]. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. New York City: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1976, pages 258-279.

Katz, Jonathan Ned. Gay/Lesbian Almanac: A New Documentary. New York City: Harper and Row, 1983, pages ???.

Koskovich, Gerard. "Gay at Stanford: Past, Present and Future" (panel discussion sponsored by the Stanford Historical Society at Stanford University, Dec. 3, 2009). Koskovich was one of three presenters; his talk mentions Hart as a forbear of the transgender rights movement. A podcast of the panel is available on the Stanford Historical Society website.

Koskovich, Gerard. "Private Lives, Public Struggles," Stanford, Vol. 21, No. 2 (June 1993).

Lauderdale, Thomas M., and Cook, Tom. "The Incredible Life and Loves of the Legendary Lucille Hart," Alternative Connection, Vol. 2, Nos. 12 and 13 (September and October 1993).

Miller, Janet, and Schwartz, Judith. Lesbian Physicians Sideshow, created for American Association of Physicians for Human Rights Conference, Portland, Oregon (August 19, 1993).

O’Hartigan, Margaret Deirdre. "Alan Lucill Hart (1890 - 1962) - doctor, roentgenologist, novelist."

O’Hartigan, Margaret Deirdre. Chapter on Alan Hart in Dean Kotula’s The Phallus Palace (2002).

Parks, Joy. "Sacred Ground: News and Reviews on Lesbian Writing".

Weiss, Jillian Todd. [ "GL vs BT: The Archaeology of Biphobia and Transphobia Within the U.S. Gay and Lesbian Community. Journal of Bisexuality (2004) 3, 25-55.



  1. Accessed July 12, 2011. The mistaken date of Hart's death on the Wikipedia entry (July 4) has been corrected here based on data provided in Brian Booth's chronology of Hart's life. See: Brian Booth, The Life and Career of Alberta Lucille/Dr. Alan L. Hart with Collected Early Writings (Lewis & Clark College, Portland, OR. 1999), page 11.
  2. Alberta Lucille Hart/Dr. Alan L. Hart: An Oregon "Pioneer" by Brian Booth. Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission
  3. Thomas M. Lauderdale and Tom Cook, "The Incredible Life and Loves of the Legendary Lucille Hart", Alternative Connection, Vol. 2, Nos. 12 and 13 (September and October 1993).
  4. "An Idyll of a Country Childhood" (published in the "The Takenah" (Albany College Yearbook), 1911)
  5. "Reminiscences of Hall's Summit," in Halls Summit News, Halls Summit, Coffey County, Kansas, June 10, 1921.
  6. Gerard Koskovich, "Private Lives, Public Struggles," Stanford (June 1993).
  7. Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), pages ???.
  8. Graduation details for "Hart, Lucille (aka Robert L.), M.D." Oregon Health & Science University Historical Collections & Archives BIOGRAPHICAL FILES in Box 27 of the Licenses, Degrees, and Certificates Collection
  10. Alter. "FTM Contributions to Medicine, Psychology, Science and Engineering."
  11. Magnus Hirschfeld - drei Fälle irrtümlicher Geschlechtsbestimmung - 1906. One individual, treated by German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld, won the right to serve in the German military. Geschlechtsübergänge. Mischungen männlicher und weiblicher Geschlechtscharaktere (sexuelle Zwischenstufen), in: Monatsschrift für Harnkrankheiten und sexuelle Hygiene, Verlag W. Malende, Leipzig, 1905. Sittengeschichte des Weltkrieges, in zwei vols. illustrated, edited by Magnus Hirschfeld, Verlag für Sexualwissenschaft Schneider & Co., Leipzig/Wien, 1930 (English edition - abbreviated and without illustrations: The Sexual History of the World War, The Panurge Press, New York, 1934)
  12. CITATION???
  13. J. Allen Gilbert: "Homosexuality and Its Treatment," October 1920
  14. Early female to male surgeries involved the implanting of testicular tissue in place of the removed ovaries. This is mentioned in Hirschfeld's notes in 1905 titled Geschlechts-Übergänge. Mischungen männlicher und weiblicher Geschlechtscharaktere (sexuelle Zwischenstufen). Crystalline (male hormones) had been extracted in usable quantities from male urine by 1903, but its use included an infection risk. Synthetic male hormone was not manufactured until 1920. See Magnus Hirschfeld's 1930 Geschlechtskunde auf Gruddreissingjährur Forschung und Erfahrung bearbeit. Stuttgart: Julius Püttman, Verlagsbuchhandlung. Vgl. ebd., S.59, und Aus einem Jahrhundert Schering-Forschung: Pharma, hrsg. v. der Schering AG – Scheringianum, Gert Wlasich u.a., Berlin 1991, S.26-31. There is no evidence that Hart took hormones as part of the treatment by Gilbert.
  15. OHSU Fertility Clinic News (September 2006), University of Oregon Medical School Library.
  17. Alter, Levi. "FTM Contributions to Medicine, Psychology, Science and Engineering." Accessed July 12, 2011. What's the source sited by this source?
  18. Brian Booth, The Life and Career of Alberta Lucille/Dr. Alan L. Hart with Collected Early Writings (Lewis & Clark College, Portland, OR. 1999), page 11.
  19. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography
  20. [1] from a presentation by Brian Booth to OCHC's Discovering Oregon Originals '99 series in 2000
  21. [2] from a presentation by Brian Booth to OCHC's Discovering Oregon Originals '99 series in 2000
  22. University of Rochester Department of Art and Art History "Alan Hart and X-Ray Vision in the Archive"
  23. Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), pages ???
  24. Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay/Lesbian Almanac (NY: Harper & Row, 1983), pages ???.
  25. Jonathan Ned Katz, text of Kessler Lecture, Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies, 2002. Copy in collection of Katz.
  26. WHAT IS THIS? Oregon History Online 2
  27. Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay/Lesbian Almanac (NY: Harper & Row, 1983), page 522.
  28. [3]
  29. Weiss, Jillian Todd "GL vs BT: The Archaeology of Biphobia and Transphobia Within the U.S. Gay and Lesbian Community. In Journal of Bisexuality (2004) 3, 25-55
  30. O’Hartigan 2002. FULL CITATION???
  31. [4]
  33. Parks, Joy Sacred Ground: News and Reviews on Lesbian Writing


ru:Харт, Алан sr:Alan Hart sh:Alan L. Hart