Eve Adams: Chronology
LAST EDIT: DECEMBER 12, 2022, 1:205 PM ET
1891-06-15: Eve was born on June 15, 1891 (according to the Julian calendar in use in Poland, then part of the Russian Empire.) In this birth certificate, “Mordka Yosif Zlocower,” reported in front of two witnesses on August 14, 1891, that, on June 15 (according to the Julian calendar then in use in the Russian Empire), in the afternoon, his wife “Miriam Ruchla Migdal,” gave birth to a female baby given the name “Chawa.” At the bottom of the document, among the signatures, there is one by “M J Zloczewer.” So despite the certificate’s earlier reference to his last name as “Zlocower,” he signed his last name “Zloczewer.” Eve’s father’s casual relation to recorded birth dates is indicated by his reporting his child’s birth almost two months after the event. Birth certificate obtained from Archiwum Państwowe w Warszawie, Oddział w Mławie, Narutowicza 3, 06-500 Mława, trans. Liliana Ossowski.
DISCREPANCY IN ASSERTED BIRTH DATES:
Eve sometimes listed her birthdate as June 15, 1891, and sometimes as March 31, 1891. Eve swore at her deportation hearing that her birth date was March 31,1891: USDLIS], #7, November 24, 1926, p. 2. Eve listed her birthday as June 15, 1891, when, after her arrest by the Nazis in France, a French police official wrote a receipt for money received from “Madame Eva Zloczower” on December 7, 1943; excavation book #38, 43, in French, via Memorial de la Shoah, accessed October 12, 2020, https://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/zoom.php?code=297301&q=id:p_249347, trans. Mimi Segal Daitz.
MARRIAGE OF EVE’S PARENTS
“Mordka Josif Zloczewer” and “Mariem-Ruchla Migdal” married in 1885 per Mława PSA Births, Marriages, Deaths, Jewish Records Indexing, Poland, JewishGen, https://www.jewishgen.org/.
FAMILY MEMBERS (FIRST SOURCE): One source lists seven names of children from the Zloczewer family of Mława, headed by “Mordekhai Yosef,” a “merchant,” and “Miryam” or “Miriam” Migdall, including “Ewa” or “Eva” or “Khava,” born 1890 (sic), “single,” a “ journalist,” data submitted by her brother “Yerakhmiel Zahavi.” Clicking on top of the first names of each person makes visible a few more details and the name the person who supplied the information. See: the Central Database of Shoah Victims’ Names, Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, https://yvng.yadvashem.org/index.html,
FAMILY MEMBERS (SECOND SOURCE): Slightly different family data is provided in a third source by Eran Zahavy, in a Zloczower family genealogy posted December 16, 2014, on the website Geni (https://www.geni.com /family-tree/index/6000000002920263005). It includes Chawa, born 1891, and Yerachmiel Zahavy (originally Zloczewer), born May 22, 1910, in Mława, Poland, died February 20, 1983, in Tel Aviv, Israel.
FIRST SEXUAL EXPERIENCE
1910-00-00: About this year, at age nineteen, in Poland, while staying in an artists' colony, Eve probably had a first sexual experience with a woman in her thirties. This is conjectural based on Eve’s essay in her book, Lesbian Love, “How I Found Myself.” The unnamed narrator of this essay is nineteen years old, Eve’s age in 1910, two years before she immigrated from Poland. See the Appendix to Katz, The Daring Life and Dangerous Times of Eve Adams, p. 196.
TO UNITED STATES
1912-05-25: Eve set off for the U.S. on May 25, 1912, sailing from Antwerp, Belgium. See: List or Manifest of Alien Passengers for the United States Immigration Officer at Port of Arrival, SS Vaderland , sailing from Antwerp, Belgium, May 25, 1912, via “Chawe Zlocsewer,” New York, Passenger and Crew Lists (Including Castle Garden and Ellis Island), 1820–1957, Ancestry.com.
ARRIVAL UNITED STATES
1912-06-04: Eve arrived in the U.S. on Tuesday, June 4, 1912. “List or Manifest of Alien Passengers,” SS Vaderland. Zlocsewer, Chame [sic for “Chawe” which is the spelling actually written], New York, Passenger Lists, 1820-1957, Role T715 1897-1957. Eve testified that she first lived with her uncle Isidore Meegdal in the Bronx. Eve’s testimony, April 11, 1927, USDLIS #7, 7 (17 of whole file).
She later told agents of the Bureau of Investigation that she had worked in a ladies shirt waist factory in New York and belonged to the Ladies Waist-Makers Union. Eve is quoted in replies to Bureau of Investigation Agent Deuber and Agent Farrell.
NEW YORK CITY
1913-00-00 – 1918-00-00 (dating approximate): Eve moved in with New York City friends for five or six years, from about 1913 to about 1918, or 1919: Eve’s testimony, April 11, 1927, USDLIS #7, 7 (17 of whole file).
EVE ATTENDS EMMA GOLDMAN SPEECH
1917-06-04: On June 4, 1917, Eve attended an anti-draft rally in which Emma Goldman dramatically declared: “I have only one life to give, and if my life is to be given for an ideal, for the liberation of the people, soldiers, help yourselves.” Goldman’s declaration at the rally was transcribed by a shorthand reporter hired by the No-Conscription League. See: Charles Pickler, “Meeting of No- Conscription League Including Speech by Emma Goldman,” June 4, 1917, Emma Goldman Papers, https://www.lib.berkeley.edu/goldman/pdfs/Speeches-Meeting of No-Conscription League.pdf.
EVE TO FANIA MARINOFF
1918-02-21: On February 21, 1918, Eve, as “Eve Zlotchever,” wrote a fervid fan letter to actress Fania Marinoff, starring in the free-love play, Karen: Eve Zlotchever to Fania Marinoff, February 21, 1918, series 1 (Correspondence), box 175, folder 2255, Carl Van Vechten Papers (YCAL MSS 1050), Beinecke Library, Yale University. Online at: https://collections.library.yale.edu/catalog/17064306 Eve may already be working for Marinoff’s brother Jacob, selling his publication, the Yiddish satirical weekly, Der Groyser Kundes (The Big Stick or The Big Prankster). T
SALESWOMAN FOR RADICAL PERIODICALS
1918-02-21: (date approximate, based on her contact with Jacob Marinoff, above). Eve started as a traveling saleswoman of radical periodicals. In a later description of her a columnist cites Eve among the increasing number of “hoboettes,” women who are taking to the road looking for work and adventure. See 1926-04-04.
FIRST BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION SURVEILLANCE
1919-07-14: On July 14, 1919, a Waterbury, Connecticut, police official telephoned Bureau of Investigation agent Warren G. Grimes in New Haven, to say that “Eva Adams” was in town, the earliest dated report of Eve using her new last name. (She was also probably using “Eve,” not “Eva.”) She was “believed to be an agitator,” an organizer for the Industrial Workers of the World, the militant labor organization that US government officials had already taken active, largely successful, steps to crush. Agent Grimes and agent J. W. R. Chamberlin that day traveled to Waterbury and searched Eve’s hotel room and confiscated some of her belongings, including “considerable printed literature and subscription blanks to a radical publication.” Warren W. Grimes and J. W. R. Chamberlin, “Eva Adams: I.W.W. Organizer,” July 14 & 26, 1919, via “Eva Adams (#370872),” images 3519525, 3519529, 3519536, and 3519539, FBI Case Files, Fold3 /Ancestry.com. Fold3 requires a paid subscription to access the files, but they are also available for free via ALIC at a US National Archives facility. Case files on “Eva Adam” or “Adams” are listed as “Bureau Section File 202600-171” and “Bureau Section File 202600-995,” record group 65, Records of the Bureau of Investigation. The original records are microfilmed as publication M1085. See: 1919, July 14: Agent Grimes, BOI, New Haven, CT, re "Eva Adams: I. W. W. Organizer" and 1919, July 14: Agent Chamberlin, BOI. New Haven, CT, re "Eva Adams: I. W. W. Organizer"
"EVE ADAMS" AND THE LIBERATOR
1919-10-11: The Liberator is reported to have assigned “Eve Adams” to cover a peace conference in Washington, D.C., the first public report of Eve using her whole new name: “The following press representatives have been assigned to cover the [peace] conference” called by President Wilson in Washington, DC: “Liberator (N. Y.)—Eve Adams”; “Four Editors in Big Conference: Newspaper Men Called to Help Solve Country’s Big Problems,” Fourth Estate, October 11, 1919, 12, via Google Books, https://www .google.com/books/edition/_/XzZJAQAAMAAJ. It apparently at this conference that Eve met journalist Macnamee and talked to him about socialism or communism, resulting in his alerting John Edgar Hoover to Eve as a radical of interest. See 1919-11-10. At this conference Eve probably met status quo journalist Bruce Macnamee who first reported her name to John Edgar Hoover. See 1919-11-10.
INFORMER WRITES TO J. EDGAR HOOVER
1919-11-10: 1919, November 10: Bruce Macnamee, Washington, DC, to Hoover re "this Adams woman"
1919-11-10: 1919, November 10: J. E. Hoover, Washington, DC, re "a Russian Jewess who goes under the name of ADAMS"
EVE AND THE LIBERATOR
1919-12-00: In December 1919, “Eve Zlotchever-Adams” was advertised in The Liberator as taking subscriptions for the magazine: Liberator 2, no. 11 (December 1919): 50, back of front cover, both via Marxists Internet Archive, https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/liberator/. The hyphenated “Eve Zlotchever-Adams” suggests that Eve did not adopt “Eve Adams” as an alias to avoid identification by US officials as a noncitizen radical.
BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION AGENTS SPEAK ABOUT EVE
1919-12-27: 1919, December 27: Agent Campbell, BOI, Washington, DC, re “Bolshevik Movement in America - EVA ZLOTCHEVR, traveling under the name of EVA ADAMS"
EVE SPEAKS TO BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION AGENTS
1920-01-10: 1920, January 10: Agent Farrell, BOI, St. Louis, MO, "STATEMENT OF EVE ZLOTCHEVER ADAMS"
EVE SPEAKS TO BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION AGENTS
1920-01-10: 1920, January 10: Immigration Inspector Deuber, “STATEMENT OF EVE ZLOTCHEVER ADAMS"
AGENTS SPEAK ABOUT EVE
1920-01-12: 1920, January 12: Agent Hopkins, BOI, Los Angeles, “EVA ZLOTCHEVR (traveling under the name Eva Adams): Bolshevik Activities"
AD FOR EVE'S SALES SERVICE
1921-02-01: An ad for Eve’s sales services, probably written by her, in the left-radical journal Good Morning, stressed, “You will know her by her hair.” “Eve Adams is traveling in the West securing subscriptions. . . .” Good Morning (New York, NY), February 1, 1921, p. 19; HathiTrust.org.
LAST AGENT SPEAKS ABOUT EVE
1921-02-04: 1921, February 4: Agent Keepers, BOI, Denver, CO, re "EVA ADAMS alias EVA ZLOTCHEVR: Radical Activities". This is the last Bureau of Investigation report on Eve discovered.
AD FOR EVE'S SALES SERVICE
1921-03-01: An ad for Eve’s sales services, probably written by her, in the left-radical journal Good Morning, stressed, “You will know her by her hair.” Good Morning, March 1–15, 1921, 18, both via Hathi Trust Digital Library, https:// babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000093613887 and https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/goodmorning/1921/v3n05-mar-1-15-1921-good-morning.pdf
AD FOR EVE AS RUSSIAN TEACHER
1921-04-00: Eve advertises herself as a language teacher: “Learn Russian!!” and she is also selling socialist periodical The Liberator: “Miss Eve Adams is traveling for The Liberator: Liberator 4, no. 4 (April 1921): 32, 34 via Marxists Internet Archive, https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/liberator/.
AD IN GOOD MORNING
1921-06-15: “EVE ADAMS is traveling in the West securing subscriptions for Good Morning. Please give her yours when she calls upon you.” Good Morning, June 15–July 1, 1921, 14, via Hathi Trust Digital Library, https://babel.hathitrust.org /cgi/pt?id=inu.30000093613887.
1921-07-15: “EVE ADAMS is traveling in the West securing subscriptions for Good Morning. Please give her yours when she calls upon you.”. Good Morning, July 15-August 1, 1920, 14, via Hathi Trust Digital Library, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi /pt?id=inu.30000093613887:
STORY ABOUT EVE IN THE TRUTH
1921-08-00: Story about Eve in socialist newspapers: “EVE AdAMS PUTTING IT OVER,” “The Truth, of Duluth, welcomes Eve Adams as follows: Eve Adams, the celebrated hiker, who sets out for a seventy-ﬁve mile stroll in the morning and winds up with a swim across the English Channel in the evening, is on the trail of the artists and students and….” Good Morning, August 1921, 18, via Hathi Trust Digital Library, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000093613887.
EVE AND THE LIBERATOR
1921-11-00: “Accredited Subscription Agents for the LIBERATOR are Miss Eve Adams and Sam Becker.” Liberator, 4, no. 11, (November 1921): back of front cover, both via Marxists Internet Archive, https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/liberator/1921/11/v4n11-w44-nov-1921-liberator.pdf
FIRST AD FOR THE GREY COTTAGE
1922-04-01: The first ad for The Grey Cottage: a lecture “before the Chicago literati”: Chicago Tribune, April 1, 1922, 12, via Newspapers.com.
LATER GREY COTTAGE PUBLICITY
1922-04-15: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Ben Reitman ‘Chairman,’” April 15, 1922, 8, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-04-15: Ad for Grey Cottage, Cottage, April 15, 1922, 8, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
GREY COTTAGE PATRON CITED
1922-04-18: “Bohemia Queen, Broken Hearted, Takes Poison [after visiting The Grey Cottage],” Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1922, 1, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-05-00: Ad for The Grey Cottage as “Chicago’s Greenwich Village Tea Room” “Eve Adams and Ruth Norlander in Charge”: Liberator 5, no. 5 (May 1922): 34, via Marxists Internet Archive, https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/liberator/.
1922-05-06: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Life, A’La Boheme,” May 6, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-05-13: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Young Chicago Poets” (talk by Samuel Putnam), May 13, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-05-20: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Travels, Trials and Tribulations of a Literary Tramp,” May 20, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-05-27: Ad for Grey Cottage, May 27, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
AD AS "GREENWICH VILLAGE TEA ROOM"
1922-06-00: Ad for The Grey Cottage as “Chicago’s Greenwich Village Tea Room” “Eve Adams and Ruth Norlander in Charge”: Liberator 5, no. 5 (May 1922): 34, via Marxists Internet Archive, https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/culture/pubs/liberator/.
1922-06-10: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Vice and Virtue in the Village,” June 10, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-06-17: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Morals Versus Art,” June 17, 1922, 23, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-06-24: Ad for Grey Cottage, “Sensuality in American Fiction” (by Maxwell Bodenheim), June 24, 1922, 19, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-07-15: Ad for Grey Cottage, “The Romance of the Road,” July 15, 1922, 6, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-07-22: Ad for Grey Cottage, July 22, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-07-29: Ad for Grey Cottage, “The Penalties of Love,” July 29, 1922, 20, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-09-05: Ad for Grey Cottage, August 5, 1922, 11, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
1922-09-19: Ad for Grey Cottage, August 19, 1922, 8, Chicago Daily News, via GenealogyBank.com.
NORLANDER EXHIBITS NUDE
1922-10-11: Ruth Olson Norlander exhibits two nudes in a “No-Jury Exhibit,” perhaps including one of Eve who posed for Norlander. “The Art Exhibit at Field’s,” Svenska Tribunen-Nyheter, October 11, 1922, trans. Foreign Language Press Survey, via Newberry Library, https://flps.newberry.org/article/5423404_2_1192. Norlander’s name and address are listed in the show’s catalog as 10 E. Chestnut Street, the address of the Grey Cottage. First Annual Exhibition of the Chicago No-Jury Society of Artists (Chicago: No-Jury Society of Artists, 1922), cat. no. 253, 254; Joel Dryer (director, Illinois Historical Art Project), e-mail to JNK, May 4, 2020.
FIGHT AT GREY COTTAGE
1922-11-17: Newspaper report of “free-for-all fight” at The Grey Cottage: “Judge [John J. Richardson] Warns ‘Grey Cottage,’ Frees Proprietress and Patrons, Will Close Place Next Time,” Chicago Daily News, November 17, 1922, 3, via GenealogyBank.com.
GREY COTTAGE CRITIQUE
1922-12-06: A columnist refers to The Grey Cottage as “that refuge of thwarted intellect”: “These Philistines Will Talk of Money,” Daily Northwestern, December 6, 1922, 4, via GenealogyBank.com.
LAST AD FOR GREY COTTAGE
1922-12-08: Ad for The Grey Cottage promises “Southern Cooking”. Last ad for The Grey Cottage: Chicago Tribune, December 8, 1922, 23, via Newspapers.com.
LAST REFERENCE TO GREY COTTAGE
1923-03-04: Last contemporary reference to The Grey Cottage; columnist writes of those “who foregather at the Grey Cottage”: Penelope Perrill, “Society and ‘Flapper’ Now in Limelight: Present-Day Novelists Seem to Feel Their Themes Must Touch Along Those Lines If Offerings Meet with Public Favor,” Dayton (OH) Daily News, 2nd news section, March 4, 1923, 3, via Newspapers.com.
1923-09-11: “Declaration of Intention” to become a US citizen signed “Eve Zlotchever,” September 11, 1923, in New York State Supreme Court, Declarations of Intention filed in New York County, 1907–1924, petition vol. 659, petition 45, Division of Old Records, New York County Clerk’s Office.
MR. QUILL'S GUIDE
1924-11-00: “Mr. Quill’s Guide” to Village businesses listed “Eve and Ann’s,” at 129 MacDougal Street, as “open evenings,” with “Books, Batik, Art, etc.” Cited in Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056. Thank you Chad Heap for the references.
1924-12-00: “Mr. Quill’s Guide” to Village businesses listed “Eve and Ann’s,” at 129 MacDougal Street, as “open evenings,” with “Books, Batik, Art, etc.” Cited in Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.
EVE'S AD FOR LIFE DRAWING CLASS
1924-12-00: In an ad, “Eve Adams, Director,” urged potential artists to “Study the Human Figure as it is” in a “Life Class” at 64A West Ninth Street, Greenwich Village, Quill 15, no. 16 (December 1924): 32.
MR. QUILL'S GUIDE
1925-01-00: “Mr. Quill’s Guide” to Village businesses listed “Eve and Ann’s,” at 129 MacDougal Street, as “open evenings,” with “Books, Batik, Art, etc.” Cited in Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.
1925-02-00: “Mr. Quill’s Guide” to Village businesses listed “Eve and Ann’s,” at 129 MacDougal Street, as “open evenings,” with “Books, Batik, Art, etc.” Cited in Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.
EVE PUBLISHES LESBIAN LOVE
1925-02-00: Evelyn Addams (pseudonym of Eve Adams), Lesbian Love (place of publication unknown: Printed for private circulation only, edition of 150 copies, 72 pages, 4 drawn illustrations [February 1925]. Eve testified as her deportation hearing that she published the book in February, 1925. USDLIS #7, April 11, 1927, p. 8 in original document, p. 18 of the whole consecutively numbered document. Yale University Library Catalog at http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/5568728.
MR. QUILL'S GUIDE
1925-03-00: A listing for Eve’s Hangout appeared from March through June 1925 in Mr. Quill’s Guide. Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.
1925-04-00: A listing for Eve’s Hangout appeared from March through June 1925 in Mr. Quill’s Guide. Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.
JAY FITZPATRICK INFORMS POLICE ABOUT EVE
1925-04-00: About April 1925, Jay Fitzpatrick later swore, he had reported the acts and “undesirability” of “Eve Zlotchever” under her “alias Eve Adams” to Mrs. Mary Hamilton, Chief of Women Police, New York City. The police had then opened a file on Eve, Fitzpatrick said, but had not, he said, taken sufficient action. See entry 1925-06-23.
MR. QUILL'S GUIDE
1925-05-00: A listing for Eve’s Hangout appeared from March through June 1925 in Mr. Quill’s Guide.. Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.
1925-06-00: A listing for Eve’s Hangout appeared from March through June 1925 Mr. Quill’s Guide.. Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056. Thank you Chad Heap for research assistance.
EVE IN NEW YORK STATE CENSUS
1925-06-01: On the New York State Census, Eve declared herself a “writer”: Zloczewer, Eve [misspelled as Zloczewes] New York State Archives; Albany, New York; State Population Census Schedules, 1925; Election District: 16; Assembly District: 10; City: New York; County: New York; p: 27; Ancestry.com.
JAY FITZPATRICK TESTIFIES AT ELLIS ISLAND
1925-06-23: 1925, June 23: Jay Fitzpatrick's Testimony, Ellis Island, NY Fitzpatrick made the trip back and forth from Manhatten to Ellis Island to deliver sworn testimony against Eve, saying he saw her engage in oral sex with women, and suggested that she got paid for sex as a prostitute, rationales for her future deportation. This suggests he was cooperating with federal immigration officials to build a case against Eve, though there is no direct evidence of this. His testimony includes reference to a letter referring to Eve from “W. W. Husband,” “Commissioner General of Immigration,” “File No. 68309.” I have not found Husband’s actual letter in the files of the US Department of Labor or the US Immigration Service. The alleged date of Husband’s letter, May 26, 1925, is perhaps incorrect. Husband was actually commissioner general of immigration through May 15, 1925, and then served until 1935 as assistant secretary of labor, focusing on immigration. Fitzpatrick’s testimony is one document in the fifty-nine-page file that constitutes one of the major documents in the Eve Adams archive. This is a file of US government documents associated with Eve’s deportation hearings. A copy of this file was sent to me by the National Archives, Washington, DC, in miscellaneous order. I have ordered this file chronologically, numbered each page consecutively, and divided it into numbered sections to make the retrieval of the chronologically arranged sections and pages easier for future researchers. This file is subsequently cited as USDLIS followed by a number sign indicating a section and then a page number. For example, Fitzpatrick’s testimony is cited as USDLIS #1, 1. Two sections of the fifty-nine-page file—#7 and #11—are themselves paginated. When citing those sections I include the original page number and note the page number of the whole file; see Correspondence Case & Policy Files, 1906–1959, RG85, E9, #55588/556–560, 17W3, box 7300, 18/5/6, Tabbed, Archives File. US National Archives, Washington, DC.
NOTE OVER EVE'S NAME ON LIST OF STEAMSHIP PASSENGERS
1925-07-01: On top of the name “Zlocsewer, Chawe” on list of steamship passengers in 1912 are the handwritten numbers 945/121 and 7/1/25 followed by what looks like two initials of a name, indicating that someone inspected this document on July 1, 1925, probably responding to Eve’s application for a return permit to the United States for her planned trip abroad. See “List or Manifest of Alien Passengers,” SS Vaderland, 1912.
IMMIGRATION SERVICE ISSUES EVE A VISA
1925-09-25: On September 25, 1925, the US Immigration Service in Washington, DC, issued “Eve Zlotchever” a visa that included “return permit” 74702: Certificate of Admission of Alien, April 11, 1927, USDLIS #7, 20 (30 of whole file).
EVE LEAVES FOR POLAND
1925-09-25 (DATE APPROXIMATE)
PHOTO OF EVE IN POLAND
1925-10-00 (date approximate): Eve Adams photo in Poland with brother Yerachmiel and (probably, sister Tobe), Collection of Eran Zahavy.
EVE LEAVES FOR U.S.
1925-11-28: “Eve Zlotchever” started back to the US after visiting her parents in Poland. She listed her height and weight. List or Manifest of Alien Passengers, SS Minnekahda, sailing from Boulogne-Sur-Mer, November 28, 1925. On the steamship Minnekahda (or Minnehaha) on the Atlantic Transport Line, see “SS Minnehaha Ephemera Collection,” Gjenvick-Gj.nvik Archives, accessed September 24, 2020, https://www.gjenvick.com/OceanTravel/ImmigrantShips/Minnehaha.html. US Department of Labor, Immigration Service. List or Manifest of Alien Passengers for the United States Immigration Officer at Port of Arrival, SS Minnekahda, sailing from Boulogne-Sur-Mer, November 28, 1925, via “Eve Zlotchever,” New York, Passenger and Crew Lists (including Castle Garden andEllis Island), 1820–1957, Ancestry.com
EVE ARRIVES U.S.
EVE CITED AS "HOBOETTE"
1926-04-04: A columnist cites Eve among the increasing number of “hoboettes,” women who are taking to the road looking for work and adventure: Dorothy Ducas, “Hobohemia Takes to the Road as Tramping Art Reaches Zenith,” New York Herald Tribune, April 4, 1926, 1926, A5, via ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
"EVE'S HANGOUT" LISTED
1926-06-00: In June 1926, a listing for “Eve’s Hangout” in The Quill described it: “Where ladies prefer each other. Not very healthy for the she-adolescents nor comfortable for he-men.” Quill 18, no. 6 (June 1926): 28. At the same address as Eve’s 129 MacDougal, The Quill listed “Ann” as “Open evenings. Fireplace, Books, Batik, Art, etc. Poetry Reading.”
1926-06-17: Evidence indicates that Eve was arrested on this date and held in prison through her first trial on July 2 and through her second trial on July 7. (see). Margaret Leonard’s sworn testimony suggested that Eve was arrested on June 12, 1926, but all other evidence indicates June 17. USDLIS #7, 12 (22 of whole file).
COURT DOCUMENT LISTINGS
1926-06-18: The New York City Magistrates Court, 1st District, Minutes, includes two listings.
[FIRST] DEFENDANT:“Eve Adams,” RESIDENCE: 38 Washington Sq.; SEX, F[emale], AGE: 35; COLOR: W[hite]; NATIVITY: Pol[ish], NATURE OF COMPLAINT: Dis[orderly Conduct; DATE OF COMPLAINT: 6/18/26; PROCESS: S[?]; OFFICER: Margaret Leonard; PRECINCT: 13 Div[ision]. DISPOSITION OF CASE: [stamped] Transferred to Special Sessions Docket 1029 [numbers illegible] [Sentenced to] 6 months [on] July 7/27 Macrery J[udge] at [illegible] App[elate] Ct[Court] [numbers illegible].
[SECOND LISTING for “Eve Adams”] includes the information [illegible numbers] 1000 S.S. [Special Sessions] [stamped sideways] Committed [stamped] June 22, 1926. Thanks to Brian Joseph Ferree for discovering this document in the New York City Municipal Archive.
VARIETY: “‘Eve’s Tea Room’ Boss”
1926-06-26: “‘Eve’s Tea Room’ Boss Ran into Policewoman,” Variety, June 23, 1926, 35, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety83-1926-06/page/n259/mode/2up.
1926-07-00: Robert Edwards, writing about his “ideal of the Village” included the defensive: “Many times I longed to cast all radicals, Freudians, androgynes, arcissi, etc, into the bottomless pit, but I was no Mussolini nor Savanarola.” Robert Edwards, What I Think of Greenwich Village, Greenwich Village Quill 18, no. 7 (July 1926): 8.
EVE TRIED FOR INDECENT BOOK
1926-07-02: Eve’s first trial, for “Indecent Book,” was held in New York City’s Court of Special Sessions, in the Building for Criminal Courts, on July 2, 1926, before a three-judge panel, Thomas J. Nolan presiding. No transcript was made of the trial for Eve or her supporters would have had to pay for it. Eve was then held five more days until her second trial on July 7. People of the State of New York v. Evelyn Addams, July 2, 1926, USDLIS #3, 5. The other two judges in the case were Henry W. Herbert and Joseph D. Kelly.
NEW YORK TIMES:
1926-07-03: “Sentenced for Giving Book: Tea Room Owner Gets Indeterminate Term for Distributing Work,” New York Times, July 3, 1926.
U.S. IMMIGRATION SERVICE
1926-07-06: A document prepared by a US Immigration Service official on July 6, 1926, records the facts of Eve’s return to the US from her trip to Poland in 1925. See: 1926, July 6: Certificate of Admission of Alien on December 8, 1925
VARIETY: "EVELYN ADDAMS"
1926-07-07: “Evelyn Addams, 1 Yr and Deportation: Boss of Eve’s in Village Sold ‘Dirty’ Book—Man-Hater Besides,” Variety, July 7, 1926, 33, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety83-1926-07.
EVE TRIED FOR "DISORDERLY CONDUCT"
1926-07-07: Judge Andrew Macrery presided over Eve’s second trial in New York City’s Magistrate’s Court, and again, no transcript of this trial was made. “City Magistrate’s Court, 1st Manhattan District: Eve Adams . . . Charged with: Disorderly Conduct. Officer: Margaret Leonard, 13th Division. Disposition, Workhouse, 6 months. Date, July 7, 1926. Magistrate, [Andrew] Macrery,” October 7, 1926, USDLIS #3, 3, 6.
PERIODICALS REPORT EVE'S SENTENCE
1926-07-08: “Greenwich Village Eve Gets 6 Months More,” Journal (Milwaukee, WI), July 8, 1926, via GenealogyBank.com.
1926-07-09: “Six Months More for Woman,” New York Times, July 9, 1926.
1926-07-17: “Seller of Obscene Books [sic] Given 6 Months,” Tablet (Brooklyn, NY), July 17, 1926, 1, via GenealogyBank.com.
VARIETY: "EVE'S TEA ROOM"
1926-07-21: “Eve’s Tea Room has had a cop” standing by since her arrest: “Cop Detailed in Vil ‘Joints’ Ruin Business,” Variety, July 21, 1926, 46, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety83-1926-07/page/n31/mode/2up.
VARIETY: "RICH CULTISTS"
1926-07-28: “Addams’ Ring of Rich Cultists: Investigation into Surrounding Circumstances and Companions in Village,” Variety, July 28, 1926, 37, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety83-1926-07/page /n31/mode/2up.
RUTH NORLANDER AND BARNES
1926-07-31: Ruth Olson Norlander wrote a postcard from Glenwood, Minnesota, to the Barnes Foundation asking to obtain back numbers of a publication. Norland wrote at least three other times to Barnes, in 1926, 1932, 1937, and 1947. Norlander dropped by Barnes’s house, and he let her in to see his art collection: Scans via Amanda McKnight (associate archivist and librarian, Barnes Foundation), e-mails to JNK, June 13, 2017.
1926-09-00: “Eve’s place is gone”: Peter Pater, Village News and Local Color, Greenwich Village Quill, September 1926, 57.
1926-09-00: Robert Edwards imagined “none but the emasculate” man as a customer in Eve’s old hangout. “A Letter from Robert Edwards,” Greenwich Village Quill 19, no. 2 (August 1926): 43.
1926-10-00: The fullest description of Eve’s arrest was published by the head of New York City’s policewomen: Mrs. Mary Sullivan (director of policewomen, NewYork City), “The Tea Room Case,” IAWP Bulletin, October 1926, 5–6, via NYPL Periodicals & Microforms, call no. *ZAN-10352. Thank you Brian Joseph Ferree for discovering this document.
THOMAS R. MINNICK TO COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION
1926-10-04: Thomas R. Minnick, head of the New York State Parole Commission, wrote to the commissioner of immigration, Ellis Island, the Honorable Benjamin M. Day. Minnick reported that Judge Nolan, who had found Eve guilty of publishing an “indecent book,” had asked Minnick to ask Day “to take up the matter of deporting” Eve — the first official communication to initiate Eve’s deportation hearings, an act of casual collusion between the judge and the parole commission head. Minnick told Day that he had requested his own office to contact the Immigration Service “with the view of deporting her.” Eve’s “indecent book” was punishable according to law by a minimum of ten days in jail and a maximum of one year—the actual prison time to be decided by members of Minnick’s Parole Commission. His group obligingly found that Eve’s foul crime deserved the maximum one year. This unusually harsh penalty for the “indecency” crime was purposeful. Eve received the especially harsh sentence for a reason: the Immigration Act of 1917 provided for the deportation of any alien sentenced to “one year or more” for a crime of “moral turpitude” committed within five years of entering the United States. Because Eve had left and returned to the States in 1925, immigration officials claimed that her one-year sentence for publishing an “indecent book” constituted “moral turpitude” and grounds for deportation. If Minnick’s Parole Commission had not given Eve the maximum sentence, her deportation would not have been possible—the authorities had begun to plot her exile before the Parole Commission’s sentence was handed down. The moral turpitude did not reside with Eve but with Minnick, Judge Nolan, Commissioner Day, and the other officials (almost all men) who conspired against her. See: Thomas R. Minnick to Benjamin M. Day, October 4, 1926, USDLIS #12, 42, attached to 1927, June 3: Thomas J. Conry to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, NY, USDLIS #12, 41.
U.S. IMMIGRATION SERVICE
1926-10-07: The case for Eve’s deportation is first outlined in a letter from Inspector L. V[incent] F. Jankovski, Ellis Island, to Commissioner of Immigration Henry H. Curran, October 7, 1926, USDLIS #3, 3–4. Jankovski informs his boss that the Parole Commission has sentenced Eve to a minimum jail time of one year. His report also contains incorrect allegations about Eve from a Chicago probation officer. He also reports Fitzpatrick’s sensational claims about seeing Eve having oral sex with women, acts he calls forms of prostitution. He recommends the incarcerated Eve’s “arrest,” a formal term for initiating her deportation hearings. That Jankovski was himself an immigrant makes his advocating for Eve’s deportation especially ironic. See: 1926-10-07: V. F. Jankovski to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, NY.
1926-10-11: The second call for Eve’s deportation hearings was made by Brown, Inspector in Charge, Law Division, US Department of Labor, Immigration Service. He recommends the incarcerated Eve’s “arrest,” a formal term for initiating her deportation hearings. See: W. W. Brown to Secretary of Labor, Washington, DC.
1926-10-16: Assistant Secretary of Labor William Walter Husband, the US Department of Labor’s expert on immigration, Washington, DC, initiates Eve’s deportation hearings. W[illiam] W[alter] Husband (second assistant secretary of labor, US Department of Labor, Immigration Service), call for hearings, October 16, 1926, Correspondence Case & Policy Files, 1906–1959, RG85, E9, #55588/556–560, 17W3, box 7300, 18/5/6, Tabbed, Archives File. US National Archives, Washington, DC. See: 1926, October 16: W. W. Husband to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island.
EVE'S FIRST DEPORTATION HEARING
1926-11-24: Eve’s first deportation hearing concludes with her asking for her lawyer to be present. “Record Of Hearing In Case Of Chawa (Eve} Zlotchever . . ,” November 24, 1926, USDLIS #7, 1–2 (11–12 of whole file). See: 1926, November 24: Record of Hearing in the Case of Chawa (Eve) Zlotchever
EVE'S SECOND DEPORTATION HEARING
1926-11-30: Eve’s second deportation hearing. Record of Hearing in the Case of Chawa (Eve) Zlotchever, November 30, 1926, USDLIS #7, 8 (18 of the whole file).
1927-00-00: Index Card with “NAME: ZLOTCZEWER, EVE, 55588/560 BORN: 35 in 1927 Poland [in handwriting: Z 432] BOX 2587 Acc 60-A-600,” apparently from the National Archives, Washington, DC, sent to Jonathan Ned Katz by Barbara Kahn.
GREY COTTAGE REFERENCE
1927-02-06: A passing reference to The Grey Cottage appears in Harland Rohn, "Breezes from the Lake," Chicago Daily Tribune, p. F2. [Source?]
EVE'S THIRD DEPORTATION HEARING
1927-02-10: Eve’s third deportation hearing. Record of Hearing in the Case of Chawa (Eve) Zlotchever. Policewman Margaret Leonard testifies about Eve’s alleged attempted sex. February 10, 1927, USDLIS #7, 11–19 (21–29 of whole file).
1927-02-24: Photo of the fingerprints of "Eve Adams" appear with the typed inscription "Copied 2-24-27": NPD Photo #8785, NYPD [New York Police Department] Photo Unit Collection, New York City Municipal Archives. Thanks to Elizabeth Evens for discovering this photo.
SUMMARY DEPORTATION HEARINGS
1927-04-11: Summing up the results of Eve’s hearings, Immigration Inspector Thomas J. Conry recommended “the alien’s deportation”: Record of Hearing in the Case of Chawa (Eve) Zlotchever. Thomas J. Conry, “Summary,” February 11, 1927, USDLIS #7, 20–21 (30–31 of whole file).
1927-04-12: Byron Uhl, First Assistant Commissioner, US Immigration Service, labeled Eve a “High Deportable;” April 12, 1927, USDLIS, #8, 32. See: Byron H. Uhl to Com.-Gen. Immig., Washington, DC.
1927-04-21: Howard Allen, the “Acting Chairman, Secretary & Commissioner Generals Board of Review,” recommends that Eve’s deportation hearing be reopened “for the purpose of securing, if practicable, copy of information or indictment upon which the alien was convicted and a statement from the proper officials showing the length of the sentence which was finally fixed by the Parole Commission of the State of New York, and for incorporating these documents into the record, and that the alien be given a chance to inspect the record. See: 1927, April 21: Howard Allen, Actg. Chair, Board of Review.
1927-04-25: George J. Harris, Acting Commissioner-General to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, New York Harbor, writing to the commissioner of immigration, Ellis Island on April 25, 1927, recommended that Eve’s case be reopened: USDLIS #10. See: 1927, April 25: George J. Harris to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, NY
EVE'S FOURTH DEPORTATION HEARING
1927-05-23: Eve’s fourth deportation hearing was held on May 23, 1927, without her lawyer present. The hearing that would decide Eve’s future proceeded without her counsel present—due process be damned. Conry later claimed that Eve’s lawyer had asked for that particular hearing date—suggesting that he was to blame for not appearing. His guilt apparently extended to Eve. USDLIS #11, 1–4 (37–40 of whole file) and 1927-06-03: Conry later claimed: T. J. Conry to commissioner of immigration, Ellis Island, June 3, 1927, UDLIS #12, 41. See: 1927, May 23: Hearing 4: Reopened Hearing in the Case of Chawa (Eve) Zlotchever.
1927-06-03: Conry claims that Eve’s lawyer had asked for the date of her fourth hearing—suggesting that Eve's lawyer was to blame for not appearing. His guilt apparently extended to Eve. T. J. Conry to commissioner of immigration, Ellis Island, June 3, 1927, UDLIS #12, 41. See: 1927, June 3: Thomas J. Conry to Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, NY.
1927-06-07: On June 7, Byron Uhl sent the record of Eve’s last hearing to the commissioner general of immigration in Washington, DC; USDLIS #13, 43. See: 1927, June 7: Byron H. Uhl to Com. Gen. of Immig., Washington, DC.
EVE'S LAWYER ASKS FOR PROBATION
1927-06-13: Harold L. Turk, Eve’s senior lawyer, wrote to the commissioner-general of immigration, Washington, DC, on June 13, 1927, asking that Eve receive “probation for a year” 1927, June 13: Harold L. Turk to Commiss. Gen. of Immig,, Washington, DC: USDLIS #16, 47. See response 1927-06-22.
1927-06-14: Howard Allen, acting chairman of the Immigration Service’s Board of Review, “recommended that the alien” Eve be deported; 1927, June 14: Howard Allen, Acting Chairman, Board of Review. USDLIS #9, 35.
1927-06-17: W. N Smelser, Assistant to the Secretary of Labor, Department of Labor, Washington, DC, wrote to the Commissioner of Immigration, Ellis Island, June 17, 1927, certifying that Eve “may be deported. 1927, June 17: W. N. Smelser, Ass. to Sec. Labor, to Com. Immig., Ellis Island, NY. US Immigration Service File on Eve Adams, #16, page 49.
1927-06-22: Harry E. Hull, Commissioner-General of Immigration, Washington, D.C., wrote to Eve’s lawyers Turk and Eilperin, replying to their letter of June 13, 1927, saying that Eve’s case “was very carefully considered” and that “The alien’s removal from the United States will be effected as soon as possible after she is released from prison. . . .” 1927, June 22: Harry E. Hull, Com.-Gen. Immig. to Turk & Eilperin, Brooklyn, NY. US Immigration Service file on Eve Adams, Katz #14, page 45 of whole file.
EVE"S LAWYER ASKS FOR DELAY OF DEPORTATION
1927-11-26: On November 26, as Eve’s prison term was ending, her lawyers begged the commissioner-general of immigration to delay her deportation. 1927, November 26: Turk & Eilperin to Com. Immig, Wash., DC. US Immigration Service file on Eve Adams, # 17, p. 49.
1927-12-03: Howard Allen, Acting Chairman, Secretary, and Commissioner General’s Board of Review responded to Eve’s lawyers on December 3, 1927: “No adequate grounds for such exceptional consideration are given.” He recommended immediate deportation: 1927, December 3: Howard Allen to Com. Immig., Ellis Island. USDLIS #17, 49.
EVE IS DEPORTED
1927-12-07: Eve was deported. An Ellis Island clerk wrote: a “Warrant for Deportation of Zlotczewer, Chawa Eva, Alias Adams Evelyn, Port of New York, Executed December 7, 1927, SS Polonia,” 1927, December 7: Warrant Deportation, Zlotczewer, Chawa Eva; USDLIS #22, 58.
1927-12-07: A lighthearted account of Eve’s deportation appeared in the New York Daily News: Jack Kenny, “Modern Eve Adams Driven from Eden,” Daily News (New York, NY), December 7, 1927, main (“Pink”) ed., 4, via Newspapers. com. A slightly smaller, slightly different version of this story appears as ibid., other (“Extra”) ed., 16, via Newspapers.com.
1927-12-07: Harold E. Hull answered Congressman Thomas H. Cullen’s phoned request that Eve be considered for probation, responding that Eve’s stay of deportation was denied: 1927, December 7: Harry E. Hull to Congressman Thomas H. Cullen. Harold E. Hull to Turk & Eilperin, December 7, 1927: USDLIS #19 49a.
1927-12-07: On the day of Eve’s deportation, J. Friedman, US Department of Labor, Bureau of Immigration, Warrant Division, Washington, DC, wrote a memo to George J. Harris, Assistant Commissioner-General, US Department of Labor, Bureau of Immigration, Washington, DC, saying the copy of Eve’s book, Lesbian Love, that had been in an envelope attached to Eve’s file had disappeared. Harrison responded the same day that Lesbian Love was in the envelope when Eve’s file was on his desk on the evening of December 6. He instructed Friedman to make a search for Lesbian Love since “it appears to be an important exhibit.” 1927, December 7: J. Friedman for Mr. Harris; & Harris memo; US Immigration Service file on Eve Adams, #19, pages 56-57 of whole file.
NY SOCIETY FOR SUPPRESSION OF VICE
1927-12-00: The logbook of “Record of Persons Arrested on Complaint of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice During the Year 1926[-1927], written after December 1927 records Eve's arrest, listing:
ALIASES: “Evelyn Addams, 129 MacDougal Street”;
NATIONALITY: “Polish,” “S[ingle],”
OCCUPATION: “Tea room,”
WARRANT ISSUED BY: “No Warrant, 1st District,”
OFFENSE: “Dis[orderly] Conduct”/ “Obscene Book ‘Lesbian Love’,” BAILED/AMOUNT: $1000 June 18 McAndrews/[$]1500 to 22 McCrery g.a.c. [illegible];
[COURT?]: SS; CASE TRIED OR ADJOURNED: [illegible]/to 29 trial /guilty [illegible];
NAME AND RESIDENCE OF WITNESS: “Margaret Leonard”;
OFFICER BY WHOM ARRESTED: “Polw [Policewoman] Leonard & Others;”
INVENTORY OF STOCK SEIZED: “12 books mss. [manuscripts] etc.”; SENTENCE-FINE/IMPRISONMENT: “One Dis.[orderly] Cond[uct] chrg [charge] / [illegible] 6 mos [months] in / workhouse / S.S. Ind [Indeterminate] sentence”;
REMARKS: Homosexual assaulted / Polw [Policewoman] in indecent manner / Deported Dec 1927.” Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., Container 4, “Eve Kotchever,” microfilmed.
NEW YORK DAILY NEWS
1927-12-08: “The morals of this 35-year-old” were not up to US standards, declared a tongue-in-cheek report of Eve’s deportation: “Eve Adams Uses One-Way Ticket,” Daily News (New York, NY), December 8, 1927, 16, via Newspapers.com.
1927-12-12: A few days after Eve’s deportation, a final document in her file affirmed that she had been deported; 1927, December 12: Byron H. Uhl, to Com.-Gen. Immigration., Washington, DC; USDLIS #23, 59.
1928-00-00 – 1932-00-00: Between 1928 and 1932, Henry Miller worked on his early autobiographical novel Lovely Lesbians (later titled Crazy Cock). The original title perhaps referenced Eve’s Lesbian Love, which Miller is likely to have first heard about after Eve’s arrest and trial. See Mary V. Dearborn, introduction to Crazy Cock by Henry Miller (New York: Grove Press, 1991), xix–xxi, xxv.
MAY ENGLISH TO BEN REITMAN
1928-01-07: Reporting on Eve’s prison term in the U.S., a fellow prisoner wrote: “They led her a hell of a life”: May English to Ben L. Reitman, January 7, 1928, 9–11, University of Illinois at Chicago Library. May English also told Reitman that she “met a girl who knew Eve Adams in Chicago” who said that Eve, perhaps referring to her jail term, “had but very few friends, and they were what we would call the ‘scum.’” It’s hard to judge the words of this eccentric witness.
EVE'S POLISH PASSPORT
1928-11-27: As “Zloczower, Chawa,” and “Eve Chawa Zloczower,” Eve signed a Polish passport that includes her photo; she later gave the outdated passport to Hella Olstein’s brother Georges or André. On this passport Eve declares her occupation, in French, as “Writer - Woman of letters.” The earliest date on this passport, November 27, 1928 may be incorrect. The document includes numbers of other dates. Daniel Olstein Collection.
VARIETY: "QUEER SHOW QUITS"
1929-02-06: Variety headlined a front-page story "Queer Show Quits Before Cops Cop It." A play, Modernity, a “dramatization of ‘Lesbian Love’” by “‘Jane Adams’” had been closed “on a tip off that the cops were ready to step in.” Variety reminded its readers that “Jane Adams,” the author of Lesbian Love, had been convicted as a “disseminator of obscene literature” and had been deported after serving a term on Welfare Island two years earlier. See: “Queer Show [Modernity] Quits Before Cops Cop It,” Variety, February 6, 1929, 1, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety94-1929-02/mode/2up.Variety I’ve discovered no additional information about the intriguing play Modernity or the “Scientific Players” who put it on at the Play Mart theater on Christopher Street, in Greenwich Village; the New York Public Library’s Theatre Division contains no references to the either. “a new sex play”: “Police Prevent Play,” Daily Times (Chicago, IL), September 21, 1929, 20, via GenealogyBank.com. In 1930, Variety reported that the Play Mart Players were vacating the Play Mart, which was “being demolished and replaced with [a] modern apartment house.” The company was planning to move its productions to MacDougal Alley, and open in July with The Clothes Line Revue; “Open-Air Backyard Drama in the Village,” Variety, June 11, 1930, 1, via Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/variety99-1930-06 /mode/2up. I uncovered no further information, at the NYPL’s Theatre Division or elsewhere, on the Play Mart Players, the Play Mart venue on Christopher Street, or the Play Mart producer Harold Paine. Future research might look for more information about Paine and a possible link between the aforementioned Scientific Players and Eve’s actor friend Watson White, referenced later.
EVE'S FIRST CORRESPONDENCE TO REITMAN
1929-02-15: Eve Adams wrote a first letter to Ben Reitman, February 15, 1929, series 3, box 9, folder 151, Reitman Papers, University of Illinois, Chicago, Libary. This letter is six pages long and signed “Eve Adams” with return address WP (Mrs.) M. Zloczewer, Mława. Poland, Działdowska 19.
REITMAN ON EVE
1930-00-00 (date uncertain): Ben Reitman wrote about “Eve” using a short-line prose form; Outcast Narratives, n.d., #61, box 1, folder 15, Ben Lewis Reitman Papers, University of Illinois at Chicago Library (hereafter Reitman Papers).
EVE'S SECOND CORRESPONDENCE TO REITMAN
1930-12-12: Eve Adams wrote a second letter to Ben Reitman, December 12, 1930, scan and typed copy included by Martha Reis in the set of “Transcripts” of Eve’s letters in the archive of the University of Illinois at Chicago Library that Reis sent to Eran Zahavy and that Zahavy shared with me. Though the transcript lists the original letter as in the Reitman Papers, researcher Marie K. Rowley was unable to find it there. Reis, “Hidden Histories” also lists this as in the Reitman Papers, box 9, folder 151, but this locator is now invalid after a library reorganization.
EVE TO RUTH NORLANDER
1931-06-05: “Eve Zloczower,” Mirmande, Drôme, France, wrote the only known letter to Ruth Olson, June 5 [or 6], 1931, return address “Eve Zloczower,” American Express, Paris, France. Yale University, Beineke Library. Request Box GROUP 3206, GROUP 3206, F-1, 1 item (2 p.). Accession: 42629.
EVE'S "THE WORKHOUSE IS RAIDED"
1931-08-00: “The Workhouse is Raided, Prison Sketch by Eve Adams” was listed as forthcoming in the New Review, August–October 1931. As a writer in Paris, Eve was still using her American name, a sign of her appreciation for the freedom she had experienced in her adopted country and her continuing belief in the ideals the United States had promised, then torpedoed.
1931-10-10: Columnist Billy Scully, recalled Eve Adams as “one of the most delightful” Greenwich Village characters: Billy Scully, “Village on Parade,” Greenwich Village Weekly News, October 10, 1931, cited in Chauncey, Gay New York, 242. I have not located a copy of the original document and am interested in doing so.
Broadway Brevities: "SAPPHIC SISTERS"
1931-11-16: Eve and her arrest are recalled in an imaginative rendition: “Sapphic Sisters Scram! Depression Drives Ladies of Lesbos to Normalcy Deserting Boat Boys for Jobs and Feminine Frills; Village and Beeway Camps Left Lonely as Rich Dames Vanish, Only Old Guard Carries On”: Broadway Brevities 3, no. 3 (November 16, 1931): 10 via New York Public Library.
1931-11-21: “Eve’s name and fame probably also inspired the working title of Parker Tyler’s novel-in-progress “called something like ‘Eve’s Adam,’” according to a 1931 column in a Greenwich Village paper: Greenwich Village Weekly News, November 21, 1931, cited in Chauncey, Gay New York, 242.
1932-08-07 Alexander Berkman’s diary mentions an "Eve" in Saint Tropez, France. The finding aide of the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, lists Berkman’s correspondents as including Eva in 1931, and Eve in 1934. See:https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/ARCH00040/ArchiveContentList.
REITMAN ON EVE AS "OLGA"
1933-00-00: Ben Reitman wrote about Eve as Olga, a “charming young Russian girl”: Ben Lewis Reitman, Papers, University of Illinois, Chicago, Library, Writings - "Living with Social Outcasts," pages 7-9, 1933, Box 3, folder 50: which includes “Homosexuality (To Be Added to Part IV),” a section that includes “Olga” [Eve Adams], p. 7, and “Bernice” [Ruth Olson Norlander], pp. 7-8.
WAMBLY BALD ON EVE AND "LESBIAN LOVE"
1933-01-03: American columnist Wambly Bald, writing in The Chicago Tribune (published in Paris, France, despite its name), described Eve affectionately and praised her courage for writing Lesbian Love, the only public praise documented during Eve’s lifetime. Le Vie de Boheme (As Lived on the Left Bank), Chicago Tribune and the Daily News, New York (Paris), January 3, 1933, 4, via Gallica, https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k47768609/f2.item.r.
1933-02-28: American gossip columnist Wambly Bald, writing in The Chicago Tribune (published in Paris, France, despite its name), reported under the title “Riviera Bulletins,” “George Antheil, Ella Ward, and Frances Shanahan threw a big party for Gwen Harrison, Eve Adams and the rest of the cognosenti of Cagnes.” Wambly Bald, “Le Vie de Boheme (As Lived on the Left Bank), Chicago Tribune and the Daily News, New York (Paris), February 28, 1933, p. ? via Gallica
EVE MEETS HELLA OLSTEIN
1933-07-01: Thanks to “fate” Eve, told Ben Reitman, she and Hella Olstein had “found each other” on July 1, 1933, the day Hella had arrived in Paris with twenty francs, “and we are the most devoted of friends.” Eve added that Hella, her “adopted child, a grown woman of 28” who looked 19, had been ill during most of the winter “and we had hard times, and a bit of a struggle to make ends meet, but everything is fine—now.” Eve did not explicitly say that she was referring to Hella. But Hella Olstein, born on March 5, 1905, was twenty-nine when Eve wrote Reitman on August 15, 1934. “Hella Soldner,” Central Database of Shoah Victims’ Names, Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, Jerusalem, https://yvng.yadvashem.org/nameDetails.html?itemId=1682354. This “page of testimony” under her later married name of Hella Olstein Soldner, was submitted by her brother Georges Olstein on November 26, 1998, lists her birth date as March 5, 1905, identifies her as a sangerin (singer), and gives a probable death date of August 1944.
EVE TO ALEXANDER BERKMAN
1934-04-18: Eve, in Paris, wrote to Alexander Berkman: “Well to do English friends of mine Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Grinell-Milne, author of 6 novels are looking for a villa in the South. I heard from a friend here that E. G. [Emma Goldman] wants to rent her cottage at St-Tropez for month. I am getting them interested – They are rich people and both charming good friends. . . . They have the most gorgeous town house and I am trying to convince them that they will like the place in spite that there is no bathroom. What is the news? I am getting by – My friend is visiting her father in Basel Switzerland. She will be back the end of the month. How are you and Emmy? I am so anxious to hear from you.” Grinell-Milne may be the unidentified man with an unidentified woman in a photo of Eve and Hella Olstein that may have been taken in St. Tropez (see photos from the Daniel Olstein Collection in Katz, The Daring Life and Dangerous times of Eve Adams to be added to OutHistory). Alexander Berkman Papers, International Institute of Social History. The Worlds Leading Institute in Socio-Economic History. 66, Correspondence by first name, “Eve. 1934” [three pages, letter 15-16 in file https://search.iisg.amsterdam/Record/ARCH00040/ArchiveContentList]
EVE SIGNS POLISH PASSPORT
1934-07-02: Eve signs a Polish passport on July 2, 1934, and it includes her photo: passport, Daniel Olstein Collection.
EVE'S THIRD CORRESPONDENCE TO REITMAN
1934-08-15: Eve wrote her fourth letter to Ben Reitman, August 15, 1934; included by Martha Reis in a set of “Transcripts” of Eve’s letters in the archive of the University of Illinois at Chicago Library that Reis sent to Eran Zahavy and that Zahavy shared with me. Reis included a transcript of this letter and said it was “Typed” and that the return address was American Express, Paris. According to Reis, “Hidden Histories,” 97n128 and 98n133, this letter is found in accession no. 98-36, box 2, folder 18, Reitman Papers. But researcher Marie K. Rowley was unable to find the original of this letter or two others from Eve to Reitman transcribed by Reis of Eve to Reitman in the UIC collection, and the library was unable to provide those letters’ locations after the archive was reorganized sometime after Reis completed her research.
EVE TO YERACHMIEL ZAHAVY
1934-08-24: Eve wrote a postcard to her brother in Palestine: Eve Adams, postcard to Yerachmiel Zahavy, August 24, 1934, Eran Zahavy Collection, trans. Naomi Cohen.
REITMAN ON EVE
1934-08-25: Ben Reitman informed a mutual acquaintance that Eve Adams has sent him “a very fine glimpse” of women migrants in Paris: Ben Reitman to Ena Douglas, August 25, 1934, series 3, box 23, folder 274, Reitman Papers.
REITMAN TO EVE
1934-08-27: Ben Reitman wrote to Eve his one known letter: Ben Reitman to Eve Adams, August 27, 1933 [sic, actually 1934], “Eva Adams” file, Reitman Papers. I concur with the careful researcher Martha Reis, who points out that Reitman misdated the year of this letter and that it was actually written in 1934 (Reis, “Hidden Histories,” 97n131). Reitman’s reference to Eve’s “delightful long letter of the fifteenth” must refer to her 1934 missive, which is the only one she sent to him dated August 15. In Reitman’s letter he also says “I understand that Emma’s going to get another vise [visa] and will come to America soon for 3 months. She is still in Toronto, Canada.” Emma Goldman was indeed in Toronto waiting on a visa in August 1934. Candace Falk et al., eds., “Chronology (1920–1940),” Emma Goldman: A Guide to Her Life and Documentary Sources, Emma Goldman Papers, accessed October 9, 2020, https://www.lib.berkeley.edu/goldman/pdfs/EG-AGuideToHerLife _Chronology1920-1940.pdf, 28–30. See also “Emma Goldman Extended Timeline,” Libcom, https://libcom.org/history/emma-goldman-extended-timeline.
EVE: PHOTO, PARIS
1934-09-00: Eve had her photo taken in Paris, September 1934: “Chava Zloczewer, a Jewish Woman from Mława” (photograph), France, September 1934, via Ghetto Fighters’ House Archive, https://www.infocenters.co.il/gfh/notebook_ext.asp?book=91378. This photo was sent to the Ghetto Fighters’ House in 1972 by Eve’s brother Yerachmiel Zahavy in Tel Aviv.
REITMAN RECALLS EVE
1934-11-28: Ben Reitman reportedly recalled that Eve had visited Chicago’s Dill Pickle Club, the Chicago hangout for bohemians, anarchists, radical labor agitators, and assorted dissenters founded by Jack Jones, a former organizer for the IWW: Gail Borden, “Ahead of the Times,” Chicago Daily Times, November 28, 1934, 12, in supp. 2, folder 62, Reitman Papers, cited in Reis, “Hidden Histories,” 96n125; the cited location may no longer be accurate. What does Reitman say about Eve?
BUTCH ANDERSON ON EVE
1934-12-01: Gossip columnist Butch Anderson reported on December 1, 1934, in the Paris Tribune, that “Eve Adams is neglecting the book trade and making eyes at a new blonde”: Butch Anderson, “Through Montparnasse with Gun and Camera,” Paris Tribune: Europe’s American Weekly, December 1, 1934, via Gallica, https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k4773362g/f4.item.
CHARLES ESTCOURT ON EVE
1934-12-30: Eve was listed in a newspaper column along with Ernest Hemmingway and James Farrell as among “American art’s advance guard”: Charles Estcourt Jr. “Intelligentsia Desert Paris and Flock Back to New York,” Los Angeles Times, December 30, 1934, 35, via Newspapers.com. Estcourt’s column was syndicated to multiple newspapers, and his article mentioning Eve also appeared, for instance, in the Dayton (OH) Daily News, the Indianola (MS) Enterprise, and the Atlanta (GA) Constitution (per Newspapers.com).
REITMAN TO GOLDMAN RE EVE
1934-12-31: Ben Reitman wrote to Emma Goldman that Eve Adams had sent him “a splendid article” on women migrants in Paris: Ben Reitman to Emma Goldman, December 21, 1934, Emma Goldman Archive, cited in Reis, “Hidden Histories,” 96n122. The whereabouts of Eve's article are unknown.
EVE IN ST. TROPEZ WITH HELLA
1935-06-00 (Summer; date approximate) Eve wrote to Ben Reitman that, despite “always problems and worries” (Eve’s and Hella’s struggle to make a living), she and Hella Olstein spent a month in St. Tropez in the summer of 1935. They probably visited Emma Goldman who was living in a cottage there. See Eve to Reitman, February 20, 1936.
EVE'S FOURTH CORRESPONDENCE TO REITMAN
1936-02-30: Eve wrote her fouth letter to Ben Reitman. Eve Adams to Ben Reitman, February 20, 1936, series 3, box 10, folder 274, Reitman Papers. The three-page letter was written on Le Dome stationery with a return address of 6 Place Bienvenue, Paris 15e. Ben Reitman Papers, Archives, University of Illinois, Chicago.
REITMAN RECALLS EVE
1937-00-00: Ben Reitman recalled that Eve was an attendee at the “popular” parties held on Christopher Street: Ben L. Reitman, Sister of the Road: The Autobiography of Box-Car Bertha (Edinburgh: Nabat/AK Press, 2002; original published 1937), 100–102.
MARY SULLIVAN RECALLS EVE'S ARREST
1938-00-00: The head of women police in New York City recalls Eve’s arrest in a memoir: Mary Sullivan, My Double Life: The Story of a New York Policewoman (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1938).
EVE AND HELLA IN ST. TROPEZ
1938-03-21 (or 1938-07-03 month and day uncertain). Hella Olstein, in St. Tropez with Eve for at least fourteen days, wrote a postcard in German to her father, Jacques Olstein, in Basel, Switzerland. Eve added a brief greeting and signed herself “Eve.” Address: Café de Paris, St. Tropez, France. Daniel Olstein Collection. Daniel Olstein to JNK, email May 3, 2020, 2:03 PM. Daniel Olstein sent scan of above card as part of 20200429144737538.pdf
HENRY MILLER ON EVE
1938-11-05: Henry Miller wrote from Paris, on November 5, 1938, to novelist Lawrence Durrell: “Eve Adams is just beginning to sell my water colors!! I might earn a little dough in th1is most pleasant way. Ho ho! What a joke!” Eve sold Miller’s watercolors for 50 francs each (about $1.45 in 1938, $27 today). Ian S. MacNiven, ed., The Durrell-Miller Letters: 1935–1980 (New York: New Directions Publishing, 1988), 107.
HENRY MILLER PAINTING TO GEORGES OLSTEIN
1939-06-00 – 1939-08-00 (Summer): One of Henry Miller’s paintings was given to the poor young architect trainee Georges Olstein, brother of Eve’s friend Hella, when he visited his sister and Eve in France in the summer of 1939. Daniel Olstein to Jonathan Ned Katz, Zoom interview; painting, Daniel Olstein Collection.
ANAIS NIN ON EVE
1939-07-16: In Saint-Tropez, on July 16, 1939, novelist and memoirist Anaïs Nin reported meeting Eve and Hella Olstein. Nin had just received a first copy of her second novel, Winter of Artifice. “Eve Adams saw me riding by. I showed her the book. We talked about [Henry] Miller. We arranged I would give her some copies to sell, that we would meet at the cafe. one late afternoon.” Anaïs Nin, Nearer the Moon from “A Journal of Love”: The Unexpurgated Diary of Anaïs Nin, 1937–1939, vol. 4 (New York: Harcourt, 1996), 375.
HELLA OLSTEIN POSTCARD AS NORA WAREN
1940-00-00 (no month or day.): Hella Olstein as Nora Waren, Postcard, Groupement de Artiste Professionnels de la Côte d'Azur. Included the photo that Georges Olstein sent in 1998 (see) to the Memorial de la Shoah, Paris. Daniel Olstein Collection.
1940-06-14: German Nazis occuppy Paris.
EVE IN BIARITZ TO YERACHMIEL ZAHAVY
1940-06-15: Earlier, on May 29, Belgium surrendered to the German Army and the Nazis pushed into France and occupied Paris on June 14, 1940. Eve wrote a hurried postcard from Biarritz, in southwestern France, on June 15, 1940, responding in English to a letter from her brother Yerachmiel. Eve was in motion: she had received her brother’s letter in Nice, she’d lived in Cannes for six weeks, in Biarritz for ten days, and she didn’t know how long she’d stay there. Eve did not mention it, but she was traveling with Hella. Letter, Eran Zahavy Collection.
1940-06-22: French officials signed an armistice with Nazi Germany. France was divided into a northern, German-ruled zone, and a southern, French-ruled zone. Marshal Philippe Pétain headed the French government based in the town of Vichy.
1940-06-24: Pétain’s officials signed an armistice with Italy’s Fascist leaders. Italian Fascists occupied a small zone in southeastern France in which Nice was the largest city, with Cannes sixteen miles away.
HELLA OLSTEIN TO ANDRE OLSTEIN
1940-07-21: On July 21, 1940, Hella Olstein wrote in French to her brother André, a young lawyer, in Switzerland. Her singing work in Cannes had ceased suddenly, one day, when her bosses took the train west for Bordeaux. So she and Eve had also left. People were “packed like sardines” on the train,” Olstein said, “even people in the toilets and standing the whole night.” Having stopped in Biarritz, then in Toulouse, and not finding permanent rooms, they had retreated back to Nice. Eve added a note to André in English, her words guarded: André’s letter had calmed Hella’s anxiety. Daniel Olstein Collection. The letter was sent from 58 rue de France, Nice, France.
HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDNER TO ANDRE OLSTEIN
1940-08-01: Eve’s companion Hella Olstein wrote to her brother André, the first letter in which she signed herself “H. Soldner” (her new, married last name), from 58 rue de France, Nice, the same address she shared with Eve. at 58 rue de France, Nice. Daniel Olstein Collection.
1940-08-25: Eve’s companion Hella Olstein Soldner wrote the second letter to her family, her brother André, in which Hella signed herself with her new married name: “Mme [Mrs.] Hella Soldner,” at 58 rue de France, the apartment Hella shared with Eve, Nice. Daniel Olstein Collection.
1940-09-13: On September 13, Hella Olstein Soldner’s postcard to her brother André included a note from Eve thanking him for his “help”—apparently, money he had sent—which allowed them to enjoy a restaurant lunch and toast to his health. Daniel Olstein Collection.
1940-10-03: French officials passed their first law excluding Jewish citizens from jobs in public service.28 On their own initiative, they also passed a law allowing the immediate arrest of foreign Jews.
1941-05-23: Hella Olstein Soldner wrote a letter in French to "Mes bien chers" (her father and brothers) from Brasserie de la Potinière, Chamonix-Mont Blanc, A Folliguet, Proprietor, in Southeastern France, and Eve included a three-word note to the family, May 23, 1941. Daniel Olstein Collection.
1941-05-29: Hella Olstein Soldner wrote in French from the Hotel du Brévent, Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, Haute-Savoie, in Southeastern France, near the border with Switzerland. Mentions Madame Agnes Piret. Daniel Olstein Collection.
EVE TO ANDRE OLSTEIN
1941-08-04: A “very worried” Eve wrote to Hella Ollstein’s brother, André, asking if he had heard from his sister. In this missive, sent from 58 rue de France, Nice, France, Eve wrote that she had left Hella Olstein a week before in Haute-Savoie, and had received no word from her in eight days: Eve Adams, postcard toAndré Olstein, August 4, 1941, Daniel Olstein Collection.
1941-08-13: Eve wrote a postcard to André Olstein on August 13, 1941, saying that she had heard from Hella. Daniel Olstein Collection.
1941-08-19: French police arrested Jews, sending them to a campin Drancy, a Paris suburb, prior to their deportation to concentration camps.
EVE'S FIFTH CORRESPONDENCE TO REITMAN
1941-09-01: Eve wrote a four-page letter to Ben Reitman imploring him to secure her permission to reenter the US and to help raise the funds to pay her fare. Eve mentions in passing that Hella has married. Ben Reitman Papers, University of Illinois, Chicago, Library. Transcription by Martha Reis. This four-page letter was sent from 58 rue de France, Nice, France. Watson White mentioned by Eve as a rich friend who could help pay the fare for Eve’s trip back to the U.S. Eve Adams to Ben Reitman, September 1, 1941, series 3, box 10, folder 171, Reitman Papers, University of Illinois, Chicago, Library.
EVE TO ANDRE OLSTEIN
1941-09-13: Eve wrote to André Olstein that she had heard from his sister Hella about whom she, worried, had written him earlier. Daniel Olstein Collection.
REITMAN TO HARRY KELLY
1941-09-18: Ben Reitman wrote to Harry Kelly, anarchist educator, that he “Had a letter from Eve Adams”: Ben Reitman to Harry Kelly, September 18, 1941, series 3, box 10, folder 171, Reitman Papers, University of Illinois, Chicago, Library.
SWISS IMMIGRATION TO HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDNER
1941-09-30: Swiss immigration officials wrote Hella Olstein Soldner that she had been denied entry into Switzerland where her father and two brothers resided. They relayed a letter dated one day earlier on September 29. Bureau Suisse de Passeports, Annemasse, to Hella Olstein, September 30, 1941, Daniel Olstein Collection.
1941-10-00: The Nazis began construction of a second concentration camp in the Auschwitz complex, Auschwitz-Birkenau. The new camp contained a killing center to facilitate the Nazis’ plan to exterminate all of Europe’s Jews. Zyklon B gas was to be the means of mass murder in all the gas chambers in the Auschwitz complex
EVE'S SIXTH CORRESPONDENCE TO REITMAN
1941-10-31: Eve addressed a postcard, to Ben Reitman, her sixth correspondence with him: “let us hope dear Ben” that he would be able to secure her return to the US, and funds to pay her fare: Eve Adams, postcard to Ben Lewis Reitman, October 31, 1941, series 3, box 10, folder 172, Reitman Papers. The letter was again sent from 58 rue de France, Nice, France.
HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDNER TO FAMILY
1941-11-03: Hella Olstein Soldner, in Nice, wrote in German to her family in Switzerland that she had been denied permission to join them; Hella Olstein to her family, November 3, 1941, Daniel Olstein Collection.
1942-01-20: Nazi officials gathered in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to implement what they privately called the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question,” the mass murder of all Europe’s Jews.
1942-02-08: Hella Olstein Soldner addressed a postcard to her father Jacques Olstein and Eve added a note. Daniel Olstein Collection.
SNYDER RECALLS GREY COTTAGE IN LETTER TO REITMAN
1942-03-13: George H. Snyder recalled to Ben Reitman “some very pleasant recollections” over discussions presided over by Reitman at The Grey Cottage in Chicago: George H. Snyder to Ben Reitman, March 13, 1942, supp. 2, folder 80, Reitman Papers, cited in Martha Lynn Reis, “Hidden Histories: Ben Reitman and the ‘Outcast’ Women Behind Sister of the Road: The Autobiography of Box-Car Bertha,” PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, September 2000, 96n126; the cited location may no longer be accurate.
1942-03-27: In Paris, the French police helped the Nazis arrest Jews.
EVE TO ANDRE OLSTEIN
1942-05-26: Eve addressed a letter in stilted German to “Honorable Mr. André” asking for two magazines, but apparently asking for money or two forged Swiss passports: (English translation): “Honorable Mr. André, would you be so kind (if it is possible) to find for me two samples of the journal ‘Swiss Illustré No 6’ and to send it to my place. I need this journal and will be grateful for that. I hope you are all doing fine. Best wishes also to your father and Georges. Eve Adams to André Olstein, May 26, 1942 [sent May 27], Daniel Olstein Collection.
JEWISH RELIEF ORGANIZATION RE "ZLOCZOWER"
1942-05-29: A French Jewish relief organization included reimbursement of 29 francs on May 29, 1942, to “MM ZLOCZOWER et WEISS,” almost certainly Eve and another woman; Board of Directors of the General Union of Israelites of France in the South Zone, report, October 15, 1942, 16, via Centre de Documentation, Memorial de la Shoah, administrative document CDX-9, http://bdi.memorialdelashoah.org/internet/jsp/core/MmsRedirector.jsp?id=1264031&type=NOTICE.
HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDER TO ANDRE OLSTEIN
1942-06-00: In June 1942, Hella wrote in German to her brother André, and Eve added a note in German thanking André. Daniel Olstein Collection.
1942-06-00: Rumors began to spread in France: Jews were being deported to camps and murdered.
1942-06-05: In Paris, the French police helped Nazis arrest Jews.
1942-06-16: In Nice, right-wing French militants and German Nazi pillaged the city’s synagogue.
1942-06-22: In Paris, the French police helped the Nazis arrest Jews.
1942-07-16 and 17: The French police arrested 12,884 men, women, and children and held them in the Velodrome d’Hiver sports stadium with little food or water, and few toilets, the single biggest roundup of Paris Jews.
EVE IN FRENCH TO ANDRE OLSTEIN
1942-07-17: Eve wrote in French to André Olstein that Hella was in Marseille with her (male) friend. “My dear André. Thank you kindly for your card. Hella is in Marseille. She is there almost all the time with her [male] friend. His address Hotel St. Ferreol, 13 Rue St Ferreol, Marseille. My very best wish to you & family.” Signed “Eve.” Address: “Eve Adams.” Daniel Olstein Collection.
1942-08-26: Five hundred Jews, arrested in Nice, were sent to theDrancy internment camp.
1942-08-26 and-27: Roundups in the French zone netted over 6,500 Jews.
1942-10-00:October: The French resistance newspaper J’Accuse warned that gas was being used to execute Jews.
1942-10-15: a major Jewish relief organization reported the reimbursement of twenty-nine francs to “the Misses Zloczower and Weiss” for postage expenses dating back to May 29. Zloczower was almost certainly Eve.
1942-11-11: Nazi troops invaded the area of France ruled by Philippe Petain’s government in Vichy. German Nazis and Italian Fascists extended their rule over all of France. A large new group of Jews flocked to Nice, located in the small, southern Italian zone. Italian Fascists’ policies toward Jews were known to be less harsh than the Nazis’ policies
HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDNER TO FATHER JACQUES
1943-02-08: Hella Olstein Soldner addressed a postcard to her father Jacques Olstein,, in Switzerland, on February 8, 1943: Daniel Olstein Collection.
HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDER TO ANDRE OLSTEIN
1943-02-22: Hella Olstein Soldner wrote from Nice, in French, to her brother André Olstein, in Basel, Switzerland. English translation: My dear André, / I thank you for your letter and I am very happy to finally have some news from you. How is Papa! And Georges why doesn't he also write to me? I would also be happy to receive some good news from him. As for my photos that you find sad, well it's for my work and my songs are sad I cannot deny it. But one day I will send to you a photo with a wide smile, beneath the sun and once again very warm. Then I will take a photo on the promenade then you will have a happier photo.” Page 2: . . . At my home everything goes very well. Eve does my housework in my little apartment and my stomach is completely in order. (Original: Chez moi tout von tres bien, Eve fait touquans mon ménage dans mon petit appartment et moi estomc est completment en order.) . . . You know that my husband has disappeared. It’s the Geneva Red Cross that gave me that news which is not very happy. But I hope nevertheless that he is alive, He was so “gentile.” [It’s difficult to translate the French word “gentile”]. Well one can only wait. . . . . Ah, I again thank Georges for a card that arrived, but it took 6 months to arrive. It did! So my dear André very quickly send me some news and I love you with all my heart. I also kiss Papa and Georges with all my heart and they should also write. Helly. Best greetings from Eve to everyone. Translation: Mimi Segal Daitz. Hella Olstein Soldner to André Olstein, February 22, 1943, Daniel Olstein Collection.
1943-04-27: In Nice, antifascists shot three Italian Fascist officers eating in a restaurant, killing one.
1943, 05-06 May: In Nice, Cannes, and Marseille antifascists bombed Italian Fascist soldiers.
1943-05-11 and 15: In Nice, Italian Fascists arrested civilians considered unsupportive of the regime.
1943-05-19: In Nice, Italian civil authorities arrested a German Jew, Theodor Wolff, the former editor of the influential left-liberal paper the Berliner Tageblatt and a founder of the German Democratic Party. Wolff was sent to a concentration camp in Germany, then to a hospital, where he died. Despite Nice’s location in the relatively safe Italian occupation zone, anti-Jewish incidents were frequent in the city.65
1943-07-10: and British troops began to occupy the Italian island of Sicily, suggesting to many that the Italian Fascists were losing the war.
1943-07-25:Italian government officials voted no confidence in Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, and his fall ended the Italian Fascist government.
HELLA OLSTEIN SOLDNER TO HER FAMILY
1943-08-10: On August 10, 1943, Hella Soldner, in French, wrote her last extant letter to her family, addressing it to her “My dear ones,” in Switzerland: In translation: “First of all I must excuse myself for not writing earlier. I already received two [cards] from Georges four months ago and I [illegible]. You must have worried about me, but I implore you with all my heart to excuse me, I simply did not write. Everything is good with me I work always a little and a week ago [?] I sang at Radio Monte-Carlo, I could not have let you know ahead of time, because by phone we cannot and by letter you would not have received it in time. / And how are things with you? I hope soon to have a long letter from you all. / [Page 2, left side] And Georges is he still in Zurich? And André and Papa. Send me some of your news quickly. You will surely say that I am demanding after I let you wait so long I demand a swift response. But surely you know how it is. And it was not all laziness believe me. A friend of mine who is very dear to me had troubles, so I have been a bit occupied with him, now everything is going fine for him so I am also more relaxed. And I return to my life and work. And in Basel how is it, I would very much like to be with you there, but here we don’t have much to complain about, at the moment there are lots of vegetables and fruits and the food supplies remain more or less the same. But it is
[Page 2, right side] very hot, as it must be at your place. / Eve still lives with me, she does [?] my housework, I also have a small dog of four months [Eve habite toujours chez moi, elle me fait m[…] ménage, j’ai aussi un petit chien de 4 moi] you will say one more thing to worry about, maybe, but now I have it and I will keep it. One gets so attached to a little baby and it is nice as all the rest. And if I come one [day] to Switzerland I really hope to be able to bring him. I will most likely not come alone, but not with Eve, but with him. He is a great artist, but for the moment he can’t work, in his profession, because he is an Israelite. He is a brave boy and it makes me hurt for him. And Berleli [?] and Rudi how are they, are they still in Basel? And all the others who I know, give me news of everyone. And do you have news from Lilly?
[Page 1, left side] And at your place how is it, health work [?]. So quickly, quickly, your good news, and I beseech you once again to excuse me with all my heart, I embrace you tenderly. Your Helly.”
Translation thanks to Hannah Leffingwell; letter: Daniel Olstein Collection.
1943-09-08: An armistice between Italian Fascists and antifascistAllies was publicly announced by US officials. The Italian military began an immediate retreat from southern France. The German military began an immediate occupation.
1943-09-10: The “violently sadistic” Alois Brunner, Adolf Eichmann’s assistant and a senior officer in the Nazi SS, arrived in Nice with a highly trained team, eager to find, deport, and destroy Jews.
1943-09-26: A “Confidential” memo from Heinz R.thke, chief of the Nazis’ French Department of Jewish Affairs, was titled “Final Solution of the Jewish Question in France.”
1943-09-30: At midnight, in Nice, the terrified eight-year-old Serge Klarsfeld hid behind the false back of a closet with his sister, Georgette, and his mother, Raissa, as the Germans pounded on the family’s door. The Nazis took Klarsfeld’s father, and Serge never saw him again.
1943-10-20: at Eve and Hella Olstein’s address in Nice, the Nazis arrested Samuel Straussman, age thirty-nine, a Polish-born dentist. Sent first to the Drancy camp, eight days later he was transported to Auschwitz-Birkenau
Researcher Keava McMillan found Straussman’s name by searching for the address “10 rue Alphonse Karr,” Eve’s and Hella’s last address in Nice: via “Searching the Memorial to the Jews Deported from France in One Step,” https://stevemorse.org/france/. McMillan discovered that Straussman and Hella Olstein Soldner also lived at the above address. McMillan then found Straussman in the Central Database of Shoah Victims’ Names at Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, https://yvng.yadvashem.org/index.html. Straussman is also included in Serge Klarsfeld’s Memorial to the Jews Deported from France, 1942–1944 (New York: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1983).
A form indicating that Straussmann was born October 26, 1904, in Michałowice, Poland, says that he was deported from France on Convoy 61 on October 28, 1943. Additional data about Straussmann are listed under his name at Memorial de la Shoah, http://www.memorialdelashoah.org.
1943-12-07: Eve was arrested while living at 10 Rue Alphonse Karr, Nice. A receipt for cash confiscated from “Eva Zloczower, 10 Rue Alphonse Karr, Nice,” is dated December 7, 1943, and signed by a French police officer whose name is unclear
NOTE: See: excavation book, 43 via http://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/zoom.php?code=297301&q=id:p_249347
Though Hella Olstein Soldner was living at the same address as Eve, 10 rue Alphonse Karr, Nice,there is no evidence that she was arrested with Eve. See Corrections.
EVE ARRIVES AT DRANCY CAMP
1943-12-12: “Eve Zloczower” is recorded as arriving at the Drancy internment camp in a Paris suburb, five days after her arrest, on Monday, December 12. She was assigned number 9765 and listed on one document as a “governess.” Eve probably hoped to work with the camp’s children.
See #43 in excavation book #38 via http://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/zoom.php?code=297301
HELLA ARRIVES AT DRANCY CAMP
1943-12-14: “Hella Soldner nee Olstein” is recorded as arriving at the Drancy internment camp.
Livia Parnes to Jonathan Ned Katz providing a copy of a document from the Memorial de la Shoah, Paris, on March 21, 2021, 2:11 PM. Hella was not arrested as the same time as Eve. See Corrections
EVE AND HELLA DEPORTED TO AUSCHWITZ ON CONVOY 63
1943-12-17: Eve and Hella were both deported to Auschwitz Birkenau on “Convoy 63, December 17, 1943.
NOTE: A document, a neatly typed, yellowing list in German of Convoy 63 deportees includes “ZLOCZOWER Eva,” born June 15, 1891, internment number 9765, deported from Drancy, number 847 on convoy 63. See also: “Transport 63 from Drancy, Camp, France to Auschwitz Birkenau, Extermination Camp, Poland on 17/12/1943.” See: Deportations Database, Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, https://deportation.yadvashem.org/index .html?itemId=5092635;
Memorial de la Shoah, http://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/notice.php?q=identifiant_origine:(FRMEMSH0408707144358); Serge Klarsfeld, Memorial to the Jews Deported from France, 1942–1944: Documentation of the Deportation of the Victims of the Final Solution in France (New York: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1983), Eve on p.484;
Hella Soldner’s deportation is also documented on another page of the German list of persons on Convoy 63. Hella Soldner was number 715. Her date of birth is incorrectly listed as November 14, 1915—either a clerical mistake or she declared herself ten years younger than her actual birth date. “Hella SOLDNER.” See: Memorial de la Shoah, http://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/noticephp?q=identifiant_origine:(FRMEMSH0408707132539). See “Transport 63,” Deportations Database, https://deportation.yadvashem.org/index.html?itemId=5092635.
Camille Touboul’s testimony in French about Convoy 63
See: Camille Touboul, Le plus long des chemins: De Marseille . Auschwitz [The longest road: From Marseille to Auschwitz], 2nd ed. (Nice, France: Losange, 1998), 39–40, trans. Laurence Senlick. Touboul’s, Serge Smulevik’s, and Leon Léon Arditi’s testimony about Convoy 63 quoted in “Transport 63 from Drancy,” Yad Vashem.
Serge Smulevic’s testimony in French about Convoy 63 is quoted in English translation in “Transport 63,” https://deportation.yadvashem.org /index.html?itemId=5092635. Though I have edited that English translation for clarity, nothing of substance has been changed. “From time to time”:
Leon Arditti’s testimony about Convoy 63 is likewise quoted in “Transport 63,” https://deportation.yadvashem.org/index.html?itemId=5092635. See also Leon Arditti, oral history, June 22, 1995, Shoah Foundation Institute Visual History Archive, University of Southern California, via US Holocaust Memorial Museum, https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/vha3443; Klarsfeld, Memorial to the Jews, 485. See a summary description of Convoy 63: Yad Vashem.
FRENCH GOVERNMENT LISTING
1943-12-22: The French Government officially lists Hella Olstein Soldner dying at Auschwitz on this date, but the actual date on which Hella died is unknown. Research by Livia Pernes provided the following explanation: According to the French Law, once they have information on people who were sent to the camps from France (all camps, labor, concentration), and if they have no death certificate, French law considers that they died five days after their deportation or after the arrival of the transport. In Hella's case, the Government created a death certificate in order to be able to note her name and list it in an official journal.
SEE: French Government Listing: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFARTI000031047545?page=1&pageSize=10&query=olstein&searchField=ALL&searchType=ALL&tab_selection=all&typePagination=DEFAULT; and Livia Parnes, email to JNK, June 17, 2021, 9:10 AM.
YERACHMIEL ZAHAVY TO JEWISH RELIEF ORGANIZATION
1944-02-04: Eve’s brother wrote to a Jewish relief organization asking for word of his sister Eve. Yerachmiel Zahavy to HICEM, February 14, 1944, Eran Zahavy Collection. HICEM named the Jewish relief organization formed by the merger of three earlier organizations. “HICEM,” Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, accessed October 12, 2020, https://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%206368.pdf.
ANDRE OLSTEIN TO JEWISH RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS
1944-08-23: André Olstein, Hella’s brother, wrote to various relief organizations asking for information about Hella and Eve. André Olstein to Comit. International de la Croix-Rouge, Geneva, August 23 (re: Hella), Republiquefrancaise, Commissariat aux Prisonniers, Deportes et Refugi.s, Geneva, October 16, 1944, and July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), and Jüdische Zentralkartothek, Geneva, July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), Daniel Olstein Collection.
1944-10-16: André Olstein to relief organizations asking for information about Hella and Eve. Andr. Olstein to R.publique fran.aise, Commissariat aux Prisonniers, D.port.s et R.fugi.s, Geneva, October 16, 1944, and July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), and Jüdische Zentralkartothek, Geneva, July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), Daniel Olstein Collection.
1944-11-27: André Olstein to various relief organizations asking for information about Hella and Eve. André Olstein to Comit. International de la Croix-Rouge, Geneva, November 27, 1944 (re: Hella), R.publique fran.aise, Commissariat aux Prisonniers, D.port.s et R.fugi.s, Geneva, October 16, 1944, and July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), and Jüdische Zentralkartothek, Geneva, July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), Daniel Olstein Collection.
LILLIAN TO ANDRE OLSTEIN
1944-12-06: Lillian, a friend of André Olstein, Hella’s brother, reported to him a story she had heard from a relative about Hella Olstein Soldner’s arrest in Nice: English translation by “Dear André! Monday / You will surely remember that in February, I asked for your sister’s address to inquire about my cousin, who lived in Niza [Nizza], about her whereabouts. These days I got the following answer from that cousin: ‘Ms. S. was not in hiding, but had the wrong papers. When she came home from work in late autumn ‘43 one evening, a ‘car’ was already waiting in front of the house, and she was no longer allowed to go upstairs to take something with her, the same fate had been experienced by another man in the house. After Drancy there is no way of knowing where people are being deported to.’ This is the exact wording. It hurts me a lot to give you such a horrible message. But after you had no news for so long, it must have also been clear to you that your beloved sister disappeared in this way. Maybe she is still alive, and one day, like some (especially brave) people, she will come back (or appear again). — I save all other banal words that can bring you little comfort, but be sure that I empathize with you [lit. feel with you], because in the same letter I also received the news that 6 of my close relatives from Holland were transported to Belgium. If I can serve you any other way, I’m happy to help. Let me hear something from you. I still have another book from you which you will definitely get back when I finally get to read it. / Many warm regards,
Lillian.” Lillian [no last name listed] to André Olstein. [date uncertain], in German, trans. Keanu Heydari, Daniel Olstein Collection. The letter is now in an envelope from the Geneva Red Cross dated December 6, 1944, but André Olstein may not have returned it to its original envelope.
ANDRE OLSTEIN TO RELIEF ORGANIZATION
1945-07-28: André Olstein, Hella’s brother, wrote to various relief organizations asking for information about Hella and Eve. André Olstein to Republique francaise, Commissariat aux Prisonniers, De.portes et Refugies, Geneva, July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), and to Jüdische Zentralkartothek, Geneva, July 28, 1945 (re: both Hella and Eve), Daniel Olstein Collection.
HENRY MILLER AND EVE
1956-00-00: Discussion of Henry Miller’s friendship with Eve in: Alfred Perles, My Friend Henry Miller (New York: John Day, 1956).
DAVID GEORGE PLOTKIN RECALLS EVE'S TEA ROOM
1958-00-00: An anti-homosexual man walks into a lesbian and gay den (Eve’s) and reports his reaction: David George Kin (pseudonym of David George Plotkin), Women Without Men: True Stories of Lesbian Love in Greenwich Village (New York: Brookwood, 1958), 101.
ZECHARIA ZLOCZEWER RECALLS EVE
1972-12-24: Zecharia Zloczewer recalled cousin Eve in a letter to Jacob Alter which Alter sent to Eve’s brother, Yerachmiel Zahavy. It for the first time suggests that Zahavy had some inkling of his sister’s queer life before he died. A typed copy of Zecharia Zloczewer’s letter in Yiddish addressed to Jacob Alter, is included with a typed letter from Alter to Yerachmiel Zahavy, in Hebrew, dated December 24, 1972, from Tel Aviv, on the stationery of the Mława Emigrants Organization; Eran Zahavy Collection, trans. Naomi Cohen.
EVE AND HENRY MILLER
1978-00-00: A brief mention of Eve’s friendship with Henry Miller in: Jay Martin, Always Merry and Bright: The Life of Henry Miller; An Unauthorized Biography (Santa Barbara, CA: Capra Press, 1978), 319, 531.
REXROTH RECALLS EVE AND RUTH AND GREY COTTAGE
1982-00-00: Poet Kenneth Rexroth recalled Eve, her partner Ruth Olson Norlander, and The Grey Cottage in: Kenneth Rexroth, An Autobiographical Novel (Santa Barbara, CA: Ross-Erikson, 1982), 260. Rexroth’s book is copyrighted 1964, 1966, 1978, 1982.
GREY COTTAGE RECALLED
1984-02-01: Passing reference to The Grey Cottage and Cramer’s suicide attempt. William D. Miller, Dorothy Day: A Biography (Harper & Row, February 1, 1984).
HENRY MILLER AND EVE
1988-00-00: One of Miller’s letters citing Eve selling Miller’s watercolors is mentioned in: Ian S. MacNiven, ed., The Durrell-Miller Letters: 1935–1980 (New York: New Directions Publishing, 1988).
CHAUNCEY WRITES ABOUT EVE
1989-00-00: George Chauncey, Gay New York: Urban Culture and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940. Yale University, History Supervisor: Nancy Cott. Readers: John Boswell, David Montgomery. Probably includes section on Eve Adams.
EVE AND HENRY MILLER
1991-00-00: Brief mention of Eve in: Robert Cross, Henry Miller: The Paris Years (Big Sur, CA: PeerAmid Press, 1991), p. ?
1991-00-00: Miller biographer Robert Ferguson claims that during a 1928 trip to Paris with his wife, June, Miller “had discovered Eve Adams’ pornographic bookshop in Montparnasse and purchased a copy of Fanny Hill and a set of dirty postcards.” However, Ferguson provides no source for these claims, and no other source says that Eve ran a bookshop, pornographic or otherwise. Robert Ferguson, Henry Miller: A Life (New York: W. W. Norton, 1991), 177.
REXROTH ON EVE
1991-00-00: The later part of Kenneth Rexroth’s life is discussed in a book edited by Linda Hamalian titled “Keneth Rexroth, An Autobiographical Novel” (New York: New Directions, 1991), easy to confuse with Rexroth’s own Autobiographical Novel (Santa Barbara, CA: Ross-Erikson, 1982). In Hamalian’s volume Rethroth says: “Eve Adams had gone off to New York and Ruth [Olson Norlander] had opened a place at 19 West Pearson Street in an old barn,” and Rexroth and his friends “all moved in”; “Rexroth Autobiography,” Bureau of Public Secrets, accessed September 23, 2020, http://www.bopsecrets.org/rexroth/autobio/4.htm. A “homo” scene at 19 West Pearson Street is described in Zorbaugh, Gold Coast, 96.
CHAUNCEY ON EVE
1993-00-00: George Chauncey, “Long-Haired Men and Short-Haired Women: Building a Gay World in the Heart of Bohemia,” Rick Beard and Leslie Cohen Berkowitz, editors, Greenwich Village: Culture and Counterculture (Museum of the City of New York, Rutgers University Press), 1993, 151-163. Eve is mentioned on 162.
CHAUNCEY ON EVE
1994-00-00: Two pages on Eve in Greenwich Village appeared in George Chauncey, Gay New York: Gender, Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World (New York: Basic Books, 1994).
JAMES T. FARRELL, HIS WIFE, AND EVE
1998-00-00: A brief mention of Eve is contained in: Edgar Marquess Branch, A Paris Year: Dorothy and James T. Farrell, 1931–1932 (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1998), 32–33, 120, 165n15–16, 185n10.
GEORGES OLSTEIN TO YAD VASHEM
1998-11-26: Georges Olstein, in Zurich, Switzerland, submitted a form about his sister Hella Olstein Soldner and her family to Yad Vashem, including a photo that Soldner used as a singer (German: Sängerin). He said she was born March 5, 1905, and cited Hella’s husband’s name as Gaston. He suggested without citing his evidence that Hella had died in Auschwitz in August 1944, not immediately upon arrival.
TERRY ON EVE
1999-00-00: Jennifer Terry, An American Obsession: Science, Medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern Society. 1999. Pp. 269-270 on “Eve Kotchever” and “Eve Addams” citing Chauncey, Gay New York.
HEAP ON EVE
2000-00-00: A few important pages and research about Eve are contained in Chad Cottrell Heap, “‘Slumming’: Sexuality, Race and Urban Commercial Leisure, 1900–1940,” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2000, 44n23, via ProQuest, 2000.999056.
REIS ON EVE AND REITMAN
2000-09-00: Major information on Eve’s relationship with Ben Reitman is contained in Martha Lynn Reis, “Hidden Histories: Ben Reitman and the ‘Outcast’ Women Behind Sister of the Road: The Autobiography of Box-Car Bertha,” PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, September 2000. In addition, Reis sent scanned copies and transcriptions of Eve’s letters to Reitman, archives in the University of Illinois, Chicago, Library, to Eve’s relative in Israel, Eran Zahavy, who shared them with me. Reis’s transcripts of some of Eve’s letters are invaluable, since the University of Illinois Library cannot find them after they were apparently recatalogued.
CRESSWELL ON REITMAN ON EVE
2001-00-00: Reitman’s recollection of “Eve” is quoted and referenced by Tim Cresswell, The Tramp in America (London: Reaktion Books, 2001), 102–103. It probably dates to the early 1930s. Cresswell did not identify the “Eve” about whom Reitman writes and “Eve Adams.”
SHOCKLY ON EVE
2004-00-00: Shockly, Jay. Eve Addams’ Tearoom 129 MacDougal Street House Designation Report (New York: City of New York, 2004), researched and written by Jay Shockley; SVHD.
SEE ON THE YOUNG AND THE EVIL
2009-01-00 (Winter): Sam See, “Making Modernism New: Queer Mythology in The Young and Evil,” English Literary History 76, no. 4 (Winter 2009): “Eve Addams” cited 1075.
KAHN ON EVE
10-04-14: William Coyle, “Just the Facts, Ma’am.” Review of Barbara Kahn’s The Spring and Fall of Eve Adams at The Theater for the New City, via https://www.offoffonline.com/offoffonline/4941
2010-04-15: Barbara Kahn, writer and director, "The Spring and Fall of Eve Adams" Theater for the New City, April 15 - May 2, 2010 via https://www.theateronline.com/venuebook.xzc?PK=210&View=Hist
2010-04-20: Jerry Talmer, "At 129 MacDougal, circa 1926, lesbian tearoom ruled" (interview with Barbara Kahn). The Villager, April 20, 2010.
2010-05-01: Paulanne Simmons, ”Theater and History Meet at MacDougal Street In Barbara Kahn's ‘The Spring and Fall of Eve Adams;" “the true story of this extraordinary woman . . . .” New York Theatre Wire, May 1, 2010 via: http://www.nytheatre-wire.com/ps10051t.htm
WALLACE ON EVE
2011-05-28: Kreg Wallace, "Eve's Hangout." Lost Womyn's Space, May 28, 2011. http://lostwomynsspace.blogspot.com/2011/05/eves-hangout.html
KAHN ON EVE
2012-02-09: Barbara Kahn’s Unreachable Eden at The Theater for the new City, February 9-26, 2012. Includes: Kahn’s “Historical Background of the Play,” via http://www.barbara-kahn.com/eden.htm
2012-02-15: Katelyn Manfre, “Lesbian Tearoom Before Its Time,” review of Barbara Kahn’s Unreachable Eden, The Forward, February 15, 2012., https://forward.com/schmooze/151346/lesbian-tearoom-before-its-time/
2013-01-04: Angelo Pitillo, “A Gay Old Time: The Scenes and Times That Defined Each Era,” New York (magazine), January 4, 2013 via: https://nymag.com/nightlife/features/gay-bar-history-2013-1/
2013-12-24: Ted Merwin, “Imprisoned For Who She Was. Barbara Kahn fills in more of the Eve Adams story in ‘Island Girls.’” The New York Jewish Week. December 24, 2013 via https://jewishweek.timesofisrael.com/imprisoned-for-who-she-was/
2014-05-25: Barbara Kahn, “Unreachable Eden,” Eve Adams (Eva Kotchever), May 25, 2014. YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zt24Ui1JE_0
GREENWICH VILLAGE SOCIETY FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION
2014-10-30: "LGBTQ History: MacDougal Street - GVSHP | Preservation | Off the Grid". Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation, October 30, 2014.
NEW YORK CITY LGBT SITES PROJECT ON EVE'S
2016-00-00: “Eve Adams’ Tearoom.” NYC LGBT Historic Sites Project. https://www.nyclgbtsites.org/site/eve-addams-tearoom/
SPRINGATE ON EVE
2016-00-00: Springate, Megan E., ed., LGBTQ America: A Theme Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender and Queer History, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, 2016. “Eve Addams” cited twice.
SCELFO ON EVE
2016-11-15: Julie Scelfo, The Women Who Made New York (Seal Press, November 15, 2016). Reference to Eve Adams and her arrest.
2016-12-01: A reviewer in The New York Times Book Review mentions Eve, a “Polish-Jewish immigrant” accused of a homosexual advance to a policewoman, a reference which set me on my research: Maureen O’Connor, review of The Women Who Made New York by Julie Scelfo, New York Times Book Review, December 1, 2016.
KATZ ON EVE
2016-11-01: Jonathan Ned Katz begins research on Eve Adams.
KAHN ON EVE
2016-12-29: Barbara Kahn, Press Kit for The Spring and Fall of Eve Adams, “Historical Background of the Play,” including a list of references and bibliography, email to Jonathan Ned Katz, December 29, 2016., 5:21 PM
ELLEDGE ON EVE
2018-00-00: The Grey Cottage is mentioned in Jim Elledge, The Boys of Fairy Town: Sodomites, Female Impersonators, Third-Sexers, Pansies, Queers, and Sex Morons in Chicago’s First Century (Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2018), 231.
KAHN ON EVE
2018-03-19: “The Spring and Fall of Eve Adams in New York,” Concert reading at festival “Untold Stories of Jewish Women, at the Museum of Jewish Heritage, NYC. Polish Daily News, March 3, 2018 via https://poland.us/strona,55,29806,0,the-spring-and-fall-of-eve-adams-in-new-york.html
HAAFMAN ON EVE
2018-04-10: “Eve Addams’ Tearoom, at 129 MacDougal Street, was run by Eva Kotchever, the so-called queen of the third sex;” Julia Van Haaften, “Berenice Abbott: A Life in Photography (April 10, 2018).”
SHOCKEY ON EVE
2018-08-00 (Fall; month approximate): Gwen Shockey, photo of 129 MacDougal Street, former home of “Eve Addams’s Tearoom,”; “Photo-Documenting the Lost Landscape of Lesbian Nightclubs in New York City” by Gwen Shockey, and Karen Loew; Change Over Time (University of Pennsylvania Press, Volume 8, Number 2, Fall 2018, pp. 186-205. See http://gwenshockeyfineart.com/news
GATTUSO ON EVE
2019-09-03: Reina Gattuso, "The Founder of America's Earliest Lesbian Bar Was Deported for Obscenity," Atlas Obscura, September 3, 2019.
McMILLAN ON EVE
2019-11-18: Keava McMillan, "Shownotes: Eve's Tearoom Part 1, New York", Part 2, Paris. Queer Ephemera. Queer Ephemera was a podcast collaboration between researcher and writer, Keava McMillan, performers Jonathan McLean and Rosa McMillan, with sound design by Rob MacNeacail. Website expired. Included major research discoveries by McMillan incorporated into The Daring Life and Dangerous Times.
DANIEL OLSTEIN ON EVE AND HELLA
2020-05-12: Information and documentation on Hella Olstein’s family background was supplied by Daniel Olstein, whose father was Hella’s brother André Olstein. Daniel Olstein, e-mail to JNK, May 12, 2020, and Zoom call.
CARPENTER ON EVE
2020-06-25: Julia Carpenter, “A Woman to Know: Eve Adams.” Features a photo from Wikimedia Commons of two women, neither of whom is Eve or one of her companions; via https://awomantoknow.substack.com/p/a-woman-to-know-eve-adams
EVENS ON EVE
2020-12-22: Important original research on Eve Adams is contained in Elizabeth Evens, “Policewomen, Plainclothes, and Pelvic Examinations: NYPD Undercover Investigations of Abortion and Queer Women, 1913–1926.” Modern American History, Published online by Cambridge University Press: December 22, 2020, 1-18 via https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/modern-american-history/article/plainclothes-policewomen-on-the-trail-nypd-undercover-investigations-of-abortionists-and-queer-women-19131926/BAA8DD80C5B8D33A25194E0690A30C2D
BARDOU ON EVE
2021-04-15: Florian Bardou, “Persécution des gays et des lesbiennes: au mémorial de la Shoah, ‘une reconnaissance tardive mais désormais officielle’.” Liberation (Paris, France): April 15, 2021. (“Persecution of gays and lesbians: at the Memorial de la Shoah [Paris, France], 'late but now official recognition'." “The Paris town hall is also engaged in a clear way by giving street names to homosexual people of this period [the 1920s and ‘30s]. Since 2019, for example, a street, a school and a nursery at the Porte de la Chapelle (18th district) are named after Eva Kotchever. She was an immigrant Jewish, Polish and anarchist. In the 1920s, she opened a literary, feminist and lesbian tearoom in New York, before being deported to Europe for "moral turpitude". With her partner Hella Olstein, they lived for a time in Paris and, in 1943, they were arrested in Nice, then deported via Drancy to Auschwitz and gassed on their arrival. Renaming places after her is therefore a way to pay homage to a forgotten historical figure who nevertheless had great political significance. Included photo of Eve Adams and Hella Olstein. See https://www.liberation.fr/societe/sexualite-et-genres/persecution-des-gays-et-des-lesbiennes-au-memorial-de-la-shoah-une-reconnaissance-tardive-mais-desormais-officielle-20210415_2CFVLG7PLJFJVPUJOSOTYEX32E/
ELIAS REVIEW OF KATZ'S THE DARING LIFE AND DANGEROUS TIMES....
2021-05-00: Michael Elias, review The Daring Life. Foreword.com: “fascinating . . . presented in full, rich terms.” Via https://www.forewordreviews.com/reviews/the-passenger-9781567926972/
KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY OF EVE
2021-05-18: Katz, Jonathan Ned. Publication of The Daring Life and Dangerous Times of Eve Adams. Chicago Review Press.
ROWBOTHAM ON EVE
2021-06-00 - 2021-08-00: "Sheila Rowbotham's Bedside table," Mslexia, June, July, August, 2021. Robotham calls Eve's story and The Daring Life and Dangerous Times of Eve Adams "absolutely gripping."
MCQUIRK ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY OF EVE
2021-06-04: Siobhan McGuirk, [review The Daring Life], Representology Journal, Vol 2, Birmingham City [England] Institute of Media and English: "a welcome intervention . . . delivers a potent reminder that queer liberation has always been intertwined with other struggles: for the rights of immigrants, women, ethnic and racial minorities, workers, all marginalised peoples. . . . underscores how all of the aforementioned struggles have been propelled forward by countless unrecognised and under-appreciated figures . . . . His book marks an important corrective . . . . weaves a complex picture of a complex woman, set against a richly textured canvas of the multiple and overlapping ‘dangerous times’ . . . . constructs an affectionate, and ultimately affecting image of a potential everyday icon. . . . The author’s skill and experience as a historian comes to the fore in his scene-setting passages and in his asides . . . . maneuvers ably by carefully noting his own and others’ speculations. . . ." Representology Journal, Vol 2, Birmingham City [England] Institute of Media and English, June 4, 2021 via: https://www.bcu.ac.uk/media/research/sir-lenny-henry-centre-for-media-diversity/representology-journal/representology-journal-vol-2/the-daring-life-and-dangerous-times-of-eve-adams
EISENSCHINK ON EVE
2021-06-15: Christoph Eisenschink, "PROUD HEROES. Eva Kotchever: Deported because she ran one of the first lesbian bars in the USA," GQ (German Edition, original in German): https://www.gq-magazin.de/lifestyle/artikel/eva-kotchever-deportiert-weil-sie-frauen-liebte-pride-month-lgbtq-community?fbclid=IwAR2CSbU6SCVoIle9bEYFS6aRRWbtaWCuzVvlBNHuO3buzW4mgtYZUADEv5E TRANSLATION: On the occasion of Pride Month we want to remember “Proud Heroes” who were born in Pride month June: people and activists who fought and suffered for the rights of the LGBTQ community. Eva Kotchever ran the lesbian eatery “Eve's Tearoom” in New York in the 1920s. [NEW PARAGRAPH] Today, June 15, 130 years ago, Chawa Zloczower was born in the Polish city of Mława, which was then part of the Russian Empire. In 1912 the Jewish woman emigrated to the United States, where she took the name Eva Kotchever - although she also used the names Eve Adams or Eve Addams, androgynous pseudonyms that allude to Adam and Eve. Because: Kotchever loved women. In the United States, she frequented left-wing intellectual circles and surrounded herself with anarchists. [NEW PARAGRAPH] “Eve's Tearoom”, a lesbian eatery in New York in the 20s. In the basement of a building at 129 MacDougal Street, Kotchever opened an LGBTQ-friendly eatery. The tea room in New York's Greenwich Village was initially known as “Eve & Ann's”, later as “Eve's Hangout”, and finally as “Eve's Tearoom”. A persistent rumor has it that there was a sign at the entrance to the restaurant that read: “Men are permitted, but not welcome”. Even if this is in all likelihood exactly that, a rumor, it is undisputed that “Eve's Tearoom” was mostly frequented by women. The entertainment program included poetry evenings and music events. [NEW PARAGRAPH] Before the establishment opened, Kotchever toured the United States selling left-wing publications, drawing the attention of the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) under the infamous Communist eater J. Edgar Hoover, then young. Later, the situation in Greenwich Village became increasingly tense, with surveillance and police raids. Informants smuggled into the relevant bars in order to find “incriminating” evidence of the allegedly obscene goings-on there.
CABALLERO ON EVE
2021-06-17: Caballero, Oscar (Paris), "La persecución nazi de homosexuales," LAVANGUARDIA.COM (Barcelona, Spain). The Shoah Memorial in Paris recovers in an exhibition the history and harassment of gays and lesbians, marked by Nazism and sent to extermination camps: https://www.lavanguardia.com/.../persecucion-nazi.html
Chawa Złoczower and Hella Olstein in France in 1934. The exhibition recovers stories such as that of the Polish Chawa Ztoczower (1891-1943): at the age of 21 she emigrated to the United States, renamed Eve Adams and opened in 1925, in New York, Eve Adams Tea Room, a literary café, a refuge for Lesbians according to the police, who expelled her to Poland in 1927. In the 1930s, in Paris, she lived with Hella Olstein, a Polish Jew. In 1943 they were arrested in Nice and left for Auschwitz "on train No. 63, December 17".
DOWNS ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY
2021-06-21: Downs, Jim. "Rediscovering Eve Adams, the Radical Lesbian Activist. How Jonathan Ned Katz retraced the story of the woman who wrote what might be the first ethnography of American lesbian life." The New Yorker, online June 21, 2021; https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/rediscovering-eve-adams-the-radical-lesbian-activist.
ENZER ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY
2021-06-21: Enszer, Julie R. [Review of The Daring Life], Jewish Book Council: “a stunning new biography . . . . Lesbian Love is astonishing. . . . contributes to an array of fields of inquiry: Jewish history, Holocaust studies, lesbian history, and lesbian literary history. It also demonstrates the cunning ingenuity of queer historians in piecing together lives of LGBTQ people who have previously been excluded. . . . a compelling picture of Adams’s life . . . . via: https://www.jewishbookcouncil.org/book/the-daring-life-and-dangerous-times-of-eve-adams
PALMER ON EVE AND ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY
2021-07-02: Palmer, Emily. "Overlooked No More: Eve Adams, Writer Who Gave Lesbians a Voice. Her 1925 book, “Lesbian Love,” is one of the earliest examples of American lesbian literature. She also ran Eve’s Hangout, a literary haunt in Manhattan." New York Times online, July 2, 2021; print edition July 5, 2021. See https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/02/obituaries/eve-adams-overlooked.html
2021-07-06: Kennethinthe(212) [blog] linked to New York Times story about Eve; The New York Times: "Overlooked no more: Eve Adams, writer who gave lesbians a voice."
ZAHAVY ON EVE
2021-08-16: Eran Zahavy, “But why does an anarchist need citizenship?” Haaretz (Tel Aviv, Israel), August 16, 2021. Translated and adapted from Hebrew with the permission of the author. See: https://outhistory.org/exhibits/show/evad/2021--august-16--but-why-does-
LANGER ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY
2021-11-00: Langer, Casandra [review of The Daring Life]. The Gay and Lesbian Review, November-December, pages 32-33. “Katz has given back to us an extraordinary and courageous lesbian. Chava/Eve/Eva would have remained lost to us . . . but for his dedication to rediscovering her life and work.” Langer comments on several of Katz's fact claims (see EVE ADAMS: CORRECTIONS)
SIENNA ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY
2021-12-13: Noem Sienna, [review of The Daring Life], In Geveb: Journal of Jewish Studies. “Ten Unanswered Questions: An Unconventional Interview with Eve Adams.” In geveb Journal of Jewish Studies. Praises "Katz’s thrilling and meticulously-researched biography,” adding: "Katz’s book is a sensitive portrait of Adams’ life, highlighting both the challenges faced by LGBTQ people in early 20th-century America and their significance for understanding the art, literature, and politics of the period." See: https://ingeveb.org/blog/ten-unanswered-questions
CHARLES ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY
2022-01-20: Anne Charles, [review of The Daring Life], Lambda Literary: "Katz expertly juxtaposes shaded historical events to chronicle . . . Adams’s frantic missives asking friends for money . . . out of fascist occupied Nice. . . . riveting, heartbreaking . . . ." See https://lambdaliterary.org/2022/01/a-radical-lesbian-review-of-the-daring-life-and-dangerous-times-of-eve-adams/
DOYLE ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY
2022-02-22 (email to JNK): Review posted to Amazon by JD Doyle, JD Doyle Archives, February 2022.
I’ve been reading the books of Jonathan Ned Katz for forty-three years. That’s right, 43. I came out in 1978 and his “Gay American History,” released that year, was one of the books I immediately devoured upon my awakening to our culture and history. That copy is still on my bookshelf. His fifty-some years of writing includes many books, and he set in motion a monumental body of work itself if you consider his countless contributions to the site OutHistory.org, which he founded in 2008.
The latest book is in a way a detective story, as tracking down the history of the woman who became Eve Adams is a remarkable journey. Eve was a Jewish, Polish immigrant, and distinctively a rebel, one who ran in anarchist circles (think: Emma Goldman), hosted lesbian-friendly tea rooms (Chicago and New York) and had the nerve to conduct a crowning act of bravery. In 1925 she wrote and published a book with no disguised agenda called “Lesbian Love.”
This made her the target of the police and the U.S. Bureau of Investigation, who pursued a campaign of arrests and moved to deport her. After several years, they succeeded. And this book continues her story of trying to survive in wartime Europe, still selling radical books. That Katz could assemble so much detail of her life is amazing, and the tales of her struggles, moving from country to country, are very engrossing.
Not only did Katz put together and thoroughly document this story of (what we would call) an activist lesbian during those years, but he was able to rescue the history that drove her. At the end of this book is her complete work, “Lesbian Love.” Only 150 copies were published. Police had thought they had destroyed all copies of her “obscene” book. But they missed one. The 30-page volume includes her own illustrations. This is history reclaimed.
BINNERTS ON KATZ'S BIOGRAPHY
2022-02-23 (email): Paul Binnerts to JNK: Dear Jonathan, Congratulations for your book on Eve Adams. I just finished reading it and enjoyed it very much. For many reasons. Most of all because you've captured her pretty dramatic life very well in a very factual style, stating the facts of her life one after the other, almost with the sound of a question mark in them: how is this possible, how could this happen, how did she survive, how did she eventually not survive? And what a wild and improbable life she led, coming from Poland as an immigrant, finding herself in America in the anarchistic and revolutionary circles of Emma Goldman and Ben Reitman, but not as a political agitator, but as a saleswoman of socialist magazines wandering all over America, discovering herself as a Lesbian, opening tearooms in Chicago and Greenwich Village in New York for likeminded people, writing a booklet Lesbian Love, being arrested and deported to Europe where she finds herself trapped when the Nazi's move in and is being deported back to Poland where she came from. To go up in flames. In your talk on YouTube, you said that you think she painted her hair red. I don't know. Quite a lot of Polish Jews were redheads, I've seen them, and they stand out. I say 'were' because not so many are left.