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Notes

[1] More on OutHistory 

[2] Los veinte y un libros rttuoies y Monarchia Indiana, ed. A. Gonzalez de Barcia Carballido y Zufiiga, 3 vols, [Madrid: N. Rodriguez Franco, 1723], vol. 2, p. 427); transvestite references: vol. I, p. 166, 307, 318, 330; vol. 2, p. 12, 13, 287, 380, 386, 392, 393, 394, 417. Torquemada’s comment on mariones are discussed in Federico Garza Carvajal, Butterflies Will Burn: Prosecuting Sodomites in Early Modern Spain and Mexico (University of Texas Press, Decenber 1, 2003), pages 168-69. March 22, 2015 accessed online.

[3] More on OutHistory 

[4] More on OutHistory 

[5] Chinigchinich: A Revised and Annotated Version of ... Boscana's Historical Account ... 1st. rev. ed. [Santa Ana, Cal.: Fine Arts, 1933], p. 54, 170-71).

[6] Jonathan Ned Katz, Love Stories: Sex Between Men Before Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001), page 8.

[7] Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), page 225-226. More on OutHistory

[8] Adapted from Jonathan Ned Katz, Love Stories: Sex Between Men Before Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001), pages 222-23, 229.

[9] Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), page 221-222.

[10] Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay/Lesbian Almanac (NY: Harper & Row, 1983), page 185. Also see Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), page 55.

[11] Special thanks to Stephanie Mckellop for this citation. 

[12] Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay/Lesbian Almanac (NY: Harper & Row, 1983), page 224.

[13] Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), pages 231-232.

[14] Pinson, Luvenia.“The Black Lesbian: Times Past-Time Present,” Womanews, Vol. 6, No. 2, May 1980, p. 8. This entry researched and written for OutHistory by Cookie Woolner. 

[15] Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay/Lesbian Almanac (NY: Harper & Row, 1983), page 323

[16] ibid. page 404.

[17] ibid. page 467.

[18] ibid. page 413.

[19] Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (NY: Crowell, 1976), pages 71-73.

[20] Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay/Lesbian Almanac (NY: Harper & Row, 1983), page 452.

[21] Garber, Eric. “Gladys Bentley: The Bulldagger Who Sang the Blues,” Out/Look, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1988, p. 58. Researched and written for OutHistory by Cookie Woolner.

[22] From the Gregory A. Sprague Papers at the Chicago History Museum, reprinted in Out and Proud in Chicago: An Overview of the City's Gay Community, Tracy Bain, editor.  Chicago: Agate Publishing, 2008, p. 48. Accessed May 12, 2014 here. Researched and written for OutHistory by Cookie Woolner.

[23] Nestle, Joan. “Excerpts from the Oral History of Mabel Hampton,” Signs, Vol. 18, No. 4, Theorizing Lesbian Experience (Summer, 1993), pp. 925-935. Accessed May 12, 2014: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3174913 Researched and written for OutHistory by Cookie Woolner.

[24] "Woman Marries Woman, Both Are Fined," Jet, Jan. 5, 1967. Special thanks to Lisa Vecoli for this citation and image.

[25] "Gay Marriage in Rotterdam," Drum, 1967. Special thanks to Jack Fritscher for this citation.

[26] “Two Females ‘Married’ – in Chicago to Each Other,” Jet, Oct. 15, 1970. Researched and written for OutHistory by Cookie Woolner.

[27] Drummer cover, 1976, issue 7. Special Thanks to Jack Fritscher. 

[28] Accessed June 30, 2015 from: http://www.beyondmarriage.org/full_statement.html

[29] Accessed June 30, 2015 from http://www.againstequality.org/ Special thanks to Conrad Ryan for this citation. 

[30] Special thanks to Conrad Ryan for this citation. 

[31] Adam Liptak. "Gay Marriage Arguments Divide Supreme Court Justices." New York Times, April 28, 2015.

[32] Carol V. A. Quinn. "What Ulrichs Knew: Resurrecting the Nineteenth-Century Debate on Same-Sex Marriage," June 5, 2015. International Journal of Applied Philosophy.